Category A Brief History of Thermal Insulation

Product description

Direct applied systems do not incorporate the use of rigid board insulation and are not within the scope of this book. Also polymer – based, the synthetic stucco is applied to a variety of water-durable substrates such as concrete masonry units and concrete.

There are two fundamental wall construction concepts of EIFS that will be discussed here. These are known as the barrier-type method and the drainable type. Although variations exist between proprietary barrier-type and drainable-type systems, an EIFS typ­ically consists of the following three components:

1. A rigid insulation board, which is secured to the exterior wall surface with a specially formulated adhesive and/or mechanical attachment

2. A durable, water-resistant base coat, which is troweled on top of the insulation and reinforced with fiberglass mesh (or scrim) that is embedded in the wet base coat for added strength

3. A durable finish coat material, an acrylic polymer that usually contains an integral pigment and sand or marble aggregate and

Product description

Figure 11.11 EIFS. (Dryvit)

is troweled over the base coat, providing the finished exterior sur­face, which can be applied in a wide variety of colors and textures

For a barrier-type EIFS, the base coat, finish coat, and any relat­ed building sealants (e. g., sealants around windows) are intended to create a surface that serves as a barrier against all water pene­tration. Any water that penetrates this barrier and infiltrates the wall assembly effectively has leaked into a building’s interior. This design is the original EIFS concept that was brought to the United States and is the most common method used on existing EIFS-clad buildings. As discussed later in this chapter, recent construction flaws have exposed a number of weaknesses in the barrier-type system. Even the United States Gypsum Company recently released a report that stated “ ‘barrier’ EIFS construction is not practical or reliable for residential or commercial construction.”13 The drainable-type EIFS installation, also known as a water – managed or rain-screen system, is similar in concept to masonry cavity wall drainage construction. This method is growing quickly in popularity and is even required by some building codes. Some proprietary systems use an insulation board manufactured with drainage channels that is installed against an exterior wall sub­strate or weather-resistive barrier. Other EIFS may use some oth­er type of material over the weather-resistive barrier and behind the insulation board to provide a drainage plain. These materials could include a drainage fabric, a metal or plastic lath, or a series of vertical spacers, similar to small furring strips, to remove any water that penetrates the exterior skin (Figs. 11.12 and 11.13).

Drainable-type EIFS are designed so that any incidental water that penetrates the exterior barrier surface drains down the drainage channels, fabric, or membrane and escapes from the base of the wall (or any horizontal obstruction) before it can leak into a building’s interior. A drainable-type EIFS is flashed and weeped and features special construction details such as drainage tracks, drip edges, etc. to prevent moisture from entering in or around win­dow openings (Figs. 11.14 and 11.15).

The insulation board used in EIFS can be EPS, XPS, or PIR. Attachment of the insulation board, whether by mechanical fas­tening or by adhesives, will be per manufacturer’s installation instructions. Proprietary systems will outline acceptable sub­strates to be used. These include cement board, exterior-grade gyp­sum sheathing, glass-mat-faced gypsum sheathing, exterior-grade plywood, or exterior-grade oriented strandboard (OSB).

Most EIFS are formulated with an integral pigmented (colored) acrylic-based finish coat that provides resistance to fading, chalk­ing, and yellowing. Although surfaces can be painted, the integral colors are designed to maintain their original appearance over time. An EIFS is very flexible in order to avoid the unsightly crack­ing problems that are common with stucco, concrete, and brick exteriors. An EIFS is usually about $4 to $6 per square foot.

Legal history

The barrier-type EIFS was plagued by large-scale moisture intru­sion problems in the 1990s in various locations around the country. Few locales received more attention than those in Hanover County and Wilmington, North Carolina, the sites of the initial discovery of moisture damage problems in 1995. Although damage was reported across the United States, experts believe the accelerated number of housing starts in the Wilmington area may have over­whelmed homebuilders’ ability to maintain quality control, thereby leading to the use of substandard building components and unqual­ified applicators using non-code-approved EIFS.

Подпись:Подпись:Подпись:Product descriptionEPS

Channeled

Insulation

Board

(mechanically

fastened)

Reinforced

Fiberglass

Mesh

Подпись: 233Figure 11.12 Drainable type—grooved EPS. (TEC Specialty Products)

Product description Product description

Figure 11.13 Drainable type—drainage fabric. (TEC Specialty Products)

Product description

INTERIOR AIR SEAL AS RECOMMENDED BY WINDOW MANUF. (PROVIDED BY OTHERS)

Подпись:Подпись:Подпись:Подпись:Подпись:Подпись:Подпись:Подпись:Подпись:Product descriptionFLANGED WINDOW

Подпись: CLOSED CELL BACKER ROD AND SEALANT (PROVIDED BY OTHERS)

The specific cause of the EIFS problem has been studied exten­sively by the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC). According to NRCC reports, wind-driven rain most commonly enters the waterproof barrier EIFS surface in and around windows and other penetrations and at wall-roof intersections. Because a barrier-type EIFS provides no means for allowing water to escape the wall cavity, escape occurs only through evaporation into the structure or through the breathable EIFS. If it is not allowed to

APPROVED WEATHER-RESISTIVE

Product description

NOTES: MAINTAIN 1/8" SPACE BETWEEN INSULATION AND WEEP CASING BEAD Figure 11.15 Section detail of drainage fabric at foundation. (TEC Specialty Products)

evaporate, as was the case in Wilmington because of the unusual climatic conditions coupled with the state building codes, it can remain in the wall for extended periods of time and eventually damage and even rot wood framing, sheathing, and other moisture – sensitive building components.

The class-action lawsuits stemming from these problems typical­ly involved the barrier-type EIFS that used insulation board over plywood, oriented strandboard, exterior-grade gypsum, or other nonmasonry substrate on an exterior wall assembly. Drainable sys­tems that included a secondary weather barrier did not suffer the same problems incurred by the barrier-type EIFS.

Limitations

Problems associated with an EIFS include cracking, surface degra­dation, impact damage, inadequate closure (e. g., sealants at win­dows), and system delamination. Each of these problems can result in water leaking into a building’s interior. The culprit does not appear to be the synthetic stucco finish, but the barrier-type EIFS. It is inevitable in building construction that water will always find a way into a wall assembly. It is when the water or moisture can­not get out that problems seem to occur.

There are a number of areas that are more prone to water intru­sion in residential applications of EIFS. These include

1. Interfaces between an EIFS and dissimilar materials.

2. Window joints around the perimeter of a window.

3. Seams and joints in the construction of the window unit, such as jambs and the sill interface.

4. Ganged window units that are not factory mulled.

5. Roof terminations against the lower edge of a wall.

6. Chimneys, decks, and any other penetration of the EIFS. This includes the installation of cap flashing, cricket flashing at trapped valleys, and effective kick-out flashing for roof-to-rake wall intersections.

7. Missing, damaged, or deteriorated sealant between the EIFS cladding and windows and doors, and around electrical fix­tures, electric meter bases, hose bibs, refrigerant lines, etc. (Annual inspections of all seals by the homeowner is a good idea.)

8. Using sealants that are not polyurethane – or silicone-based (ASTM C920, “Standard Specification for Elastomeric Joint Sealants.”)

9. Using a high-pressure power washer. (Low-pressure washing, such as with a garden hose, may be used.)

10. Kick-out flashing (cants) at roof-to-wall intersections.

11. Diverter flashing or crickets around trapped valleys.

12. Inadequate flashing (flashing should “terminate to daylight”).

13. Inability or lack of access for visual inspection and treatment of the foundation for pest control. (The termination of EIFS should always be above finished grade.)

Periodic maintenance should include a thorough check of the flashing and sealing to ensure that the building envelope remains watertight. Damaged or missing flashing should be repaired or replaced immediately; likewise, cracked or deteriorated sealants should be repaired immediately or removed and replaced. Periodic use of a moisture meter will test for moisture content.

Installation standards and practices

To ensure long-term performance of an EIFS, the EIFS Industry Members Association (EIMA) recommends that the following steps be taken prior to and during construction:

1. Selection of an EIMA member manufacturer who can provide technical support, documented product and system test results, and building code compliance information.

2. Verification that all components are supplied and/or approved by one manufacturer.

3. Selection of a knowledgeable, experienced applicator who has current approval of the manufacturer or other manufacturer – certified education requirements.

4. A thorough review by the EIFS manufacturer of any unusual project details or conditions before the work commences.

5. Verification that the proper materials (with identification and labels intact) were shipped and stored in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements.

6. Checking to make sure the applicator is using all components from the same company.

Appendix

EIFS Industry Members Association (EIMA)

3000 Corporate Center Drive, Suite 270

Morrow, GA 30260

800-294-3462

770-968-7945

Fax: 770-968-5818

http:/ /www. eifsfacts. com

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC)

RO. Box 3048 Merrifield, VA 22116 800-DOE-EREC (363-3732)

Email: doe. erec@nciinc. com

EPS Molders Association 2128 Espey Court Suite 4

Crofton, MD 21114 800-607-3772 410-451-8341 Fax: 410-451-8343 E-mail: bdecampo@aol. com http:/ /www. epsmolders. org/

Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association (PIMA)

1331 F Street, NW, Suite 975

Washington, DC 20004

202-628-6558

Fax: 202-628-3856

E-mail: pima@pima. org

http: / / www. pima. org / contactus. html

AFM Corporation/R-Control

PO. Box 246

24000 W. Highway 7

Excelsior, MN 55331

800-255-0176

952-474-0809

Fax: 952-474-2074

BASF Corporation

3000 Continental Drive North

Mt. Olive, NJ 07828

973-426-3908

Fax: 973-426-3904

http:// www. basf. com

Celotex Corporation 4010 Boy Scout Blvd.

Tampa, FL 33607

800-CELOTEX

813-873-4000

E-mail: international@celotex. com http:/ /www. celotex. com/

Dryvit Systems, Inc.

One Energy Way

West Warwick, RI 02893

401-822-4100

800-556-7752

Fax: 401-823-8820

www. dryvit. com

Owens Corning

One Owens Corning Parkway

Toledo, OH 43659

800-438-7465

http://www. owenscorning. com

Parex, Inc.

P. O. Box 189 Redan, GA 30074 770-482-7872 800-537-2739 Fax: 770-482-6878 www. parex. com

Tec Specialty Products Inc.

315 South Hicks Road Palatine, IL 60067 800-323-7407 847-358-9500 Fax: 800-952-2368

Pactive Building Products Amocor, Amofoam, Tenneco 2100 Riveredge Parkway Suite 175 Atlanta, GA 30328 800-227-7339 678-589-7337

http:/ /www. tennecobuildingprod. com/index. html

USG Corporation 125 S. Franklin St.

Chicago, IL 60606

800 USG-4YOU

800-874-4968

312-606-4000

E-mail: usg4you@usg. com

http.7 /www. usg. com/

Reference

1. “The Fire Hazard of Polyurethane and Other Organic Foam Insulation Aboard Ships and in Construction,” Hazard Information Bulletin, OSHA. Available at http: / /www. oshaslc. gov /dts /hib/hib data /hib19890510.html.

2. John S. Horvath, Geofoam Geosynthetic: Past, Present, and Future. (Bronx, NY: Manhattan College.

3. J. D. Nisson and Gautam Dutt, The Superinsulated Home Book (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1985), p. 87.

4. Mark Robert Morden, “Selecting Roof Insulation,” Building Operating Management Magazine. Available at http:llwww. facilitiesnet. com/ fnlNSINS2b7bb. html | tfdfee*=1234567890123456789112753835.

5. EPS Molders Association Web site: http: / /www. epsmolders. org/techin – fo /9502.htm.

6. EcoPan Panel Building System product literature. Available at http:/ /www. ecopan. ca/Eco-Pan. htm.

7. Alex Wilson, Environmental Building News, 4(1), 1995.

8. “Foam Sheathing Essential for Steel-Framed Walls,” Energy Source Builder 38, 1995. Available at http:/ /oikos. com/esb/38/steelstudy. html.

9. “Foam and Foam Board Insulation,” EREC Reference Briefs, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse, U. S. Department of Energy, Washington.

10. Tyler Stewart Rogers, Thermal Design of Buildings, (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1964), p. 33.

11. Roofhelp Web site, E. J. Sandquist: http://www. roofhelp. com/Rvalue. htm.

12. “New Types of Insulation,” EREC Reference Briefs. Available at http: / / www. eren. doe. gov /consumerinfo /refbriefs/eb9.html.

13. Jim Reicherts, “Water-Management: The Future of EIFS,” United States Gypsum Company literature, p. 1.

Chapter

12

Radiant Barriers and Reflective

Insulation

Images from В movies have propagated an unwarranted depiction of “radiation” and its effects on human health. In reality, radiation is the “stuff’ of life. The sun emits electromagnetic waves, a form of radiation, that directly transport energy in a straight path at the speed of light across the vacuum of space. As postulated by Albert Einstein in 1905, electromagnetic radiation travels at 186,281.7 mi/s and is only slightly slowed when passing through the earth’s atmosphere.

Radiation, or more specifically, electromagnetic radiation, is energy that can be detected only when it interacts with matter. This is best exemplified by the warmth that is felt on a person’s face when stepping out into the sun after standing under a shade tree. Wood stoves work by this same principle by transferring heat primarily via long-wave radiation to solid objects such as furniture, walls, floors, and people that are in “their” line of sight.

The electromagnetic spectrum refers to the complete range of pos­sible electromagnetic radiation energies. The six types of electro­magnetic radiation (wavelengths or frequencies) in order of increasing energy level are

1. Radio waves. Radio waves (including television and radar com­munications) are the region of the electromagnetic spectrum with very long wavelengths.

2. Infrared radiation. Infrared radiation, or heat energy, is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths long

enough to cause molecules to vibrate, increasing the tempera­ture of the molecules.

3. Visible light Visible light is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum where photons have enough energy to interact with certain pigment molecules in the retina of the eye to allow sight. This corresponds to the region of greatest solar output. All the colors of the rainbow fall into this small region, ranging from violet through indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red.

4. Ultraviolet radiation. Ultraviolet radiation is the region of the electromagnetic spectrum where photons are sufficiently ener­getic to change energy states within atoms and molecules, some­times even breaking them apart. Ozone absorbs certain types of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, which protects biologic organisms from the effects of UV rays.

5. X-rays. Most commonly known are its medical applications, since x-rays can be used to investigate the structure of mole­cules. X-rays are energetic photons that are produced in nuclear reactions and solar storms.

6. Gamma rays. Gamma rays are the most energetic of photons in the electromagnetic spectrum and the most biologically damag­ing. Gamma rays are produced in nuclear fusion reactions and can strip electrons away from molecules and atoms.

Although light is the name given to the type of electromagnetic radiation that can be seen, the bulk of the earth’s radiant emit – tance occurs in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spec­trum. A barrier to limit the transfer of infrared radiation is commonly referred to as a radiant barrier. In residential design applications, a radiant barrier is a single sheet of reflective mater­ial positioned so that it faces an open space, such as an attic or wall cavity. Generally more effective in hot climates than in cool cli­mates, radiant barriers often are used in buildings to reduce sum­mer heat gain and winter heat loss. The radiant barrier itself provides no significant thermal resistance and must be installed in conjunction with an airspace to be effective.

Reflective insulation is the use of radiant barriers in combination with other materials such as a system of reflective sheets and air­spaces designed together to fill a cavity and act as insulation. Reflective insulation systems typically are fabricated from alu­minum foils with a variety of backings such as kraft paper, plastic film, polyethylene bubbles, or cardboard.

The use of a reflective surface to intercept the flow of radiant energy is actually historical in origin. Metal foil, which is solid met­al reduced to a leaflike thinness by beating or rolling, has been around for centuries. The first mass-produced and widely used foil was made from tin. Aluminum was discovered in 1825 and replaced tin as the base material of foil in 1910, when the first aluminum foil rolling plant was opened in Switzerland.

This process evolved into the production of Reynolds Wrap, an American kitchen staple since 1947 that has protected leftovers, candy bars, and even NASA’s “space blankets.” (Reappropriated for consumers, the “survival blanket” is a thin plastic sheet that has a thin layer of metallized aluminum powder that is electrostatically fused over the plastic sheet on either one or both sides and is avail­able in most camping stores.)

Thermal Principles

As discussed in Chap. 3, there are three modes of heat transfer: convection, conduction, and radiation. Convection is the transfer of heat in a fluid or air that is caused by the physical movement of the molecules of the heated air or fluid. When warm air in a room ris­es and forces the cooler air down, convection is taking place. Convection also can be caused mechanically (forced convection), by a fan or by wind.

Conduction is the process by which heat transfer takes place in solid matter, resulting from physical contact. The transfer of heat by conduction is caused by molecular motion in which molecules transfer their energy to adjoining molecules and increase their temperature. A typical example of conduction is seen when heat is transferred from a stove burner to a tea kettle, causing its contents to boil.

The third method of heat transfer, radiation, can be “observed” by the way the sun warms the surface of the earth. Radiation is the only method by which solar energy can cross millions of miles of empty space and reach the earth. While conduction and convection can be transferred only through a medium, radiation can be trans­ferred across a perfect vacuum by electromagnetic waves.

The sun’s transmission of electromagnetic waves to material surfaces, where they are absorbed and experienced in the form of heat, is analogous to a television signal. For example, a television transmitter emits an electromagnetic wave that travels through space. The wave is captured by the antenna and converted to a video image by the television. The radiant heat transfer between objects operates independently of air currents and is controlled by the character of the material’s surface and the temperature dif­ference between objects. Warm objects and cool objects will emit radiation, just at different rates. For example, radiant heat trans­fer takes place when a person feels cold while standing in front of a cold window, even if the inside air is warm. The human body radiates its stored heat toward the cold window surface. (The win­dow is also emitting heat toward the warm body, just at a much slower rate.)

All matter emits radiation, provided that its temperature is above absolute zero. (Absolute zero is 459°F below zero.) Electromagnetic radiation does not contain any heat but only ener­gy. The energy travels in a straight line at the speed of light until it is absorbed or reflected by another substance. Heat is generated when the energy in the different parts of the electromagnetic spec­trum is transferred to the molecules in the substances that absorb the heat rays. The transfer of radiant energy from one object to another occurs without adding temperature to the airspace between them. For heat to move by radiation, there must be only a space between the objects. If the objects are touching, then the heat moves by conduction, not by radiation.

Incident energy striking an object can be absorbed by the object, reflected by the object, or transmitted through the object if it is not opaque. Since the building materials available for radiant barrier application are opaque, transmittance is not applicable to this discussion.

Absorptance is the quantitative measure of a material’s ability to absorb radiant energy. Although an ideal blackbody is hypothetical, objects are often identified by comparison of their radiative proper­ties with those of a blackbody at the same temperature. A black – body radiator is referred to as black because an ideal blackbody is a hypothetical object that absorbs all radiation incident on its sur­face. Since it does not reflect any radiation (including visible light), it appears black. An approximate blackbody is lampblack, which reflects less than 2 percent of incoming radiation. Pot belly stoves, for example, are flat black so that they will freely emit radiant heat. In theory, a mirrored surface may reflect 98 percent of the energy, while absorbing 2 percent of the energy (although alu­minum foil does not have to be shiny to reflect 95 to 97 percent). A good blackbody surface will reverse the ratio, absorbing 98 percent of the energy and reflecting only 2 percent.

Emittance refers to the ability of a material’s surface to emit radiant energy. In layperson’s terms, this means to “give off heat.” Materials that radiate a large amount of heat and absorb a large percentage of the radiation that strikes them have high emittance values. The lower the emittance of a material, the lower the amount of heat that is radiated from its surface. Aluminum foil has a very low emittance value of 0.03 to 0.05 (Fig. 12.1).

Emittance value is often expressed as a material’s emissivity. Emissivity is the ratio of the radiant energy emitted by a source to that emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature, expressed in a value ranging from 0 to 1. Most common building materials, including glass and paints of all colors, have high emissivities near

0. 9. These materials are ineffective barriers to radiant energy transfer because they are capable of transferring 90 percent of their radiant energy potential.

Kirchoff’s law states that for any object, absorptivity equals emissivity. This means that an object that is a strong absorber at a particular wavelength is also a strong emitter at that wavelength and an object that is a weak absorber at a particular wavelength is also a weak emitter at that wavelength. Emissivity of a blackbody is 1. Conversely, a perfect reflector has an emissivity of 0.

Material Surface

Emittance

Asphalt

0.90-0.98

^Aluminum foil

0.03-0.05

Brick

0.93

Concrete

0.85-0.95

Glass

0.95

Fiberglass / Cellulose

0.8-1.0

Iron (polished)

0.06

Iron (rusty)

0.85

Limestone

0.36-0.90

Marble

0.93

Paint: white lacquer

0.80

Paint: white enamel

0.91

Paint: black lacquer

0.80

Paint: black enamel

0.91

Paper

0.92

Plaster

0.91

Silver

0.02

Steel (mild)

0.12

Wood

0.90

Figure 12.1 Emittance values. (.RIMA)

Reflectance (or reflectivity) refers to the measure of how much radi­ant heat is reflected by a material. Reflectivity and emissivity are inversely related. When the emissivity and reflectivity are added together, the sum is 1. Therefore, a material with a high reflectivity has a low emissivity, and a low emittance is indicative of a highly reflective surface. For example, since aluminum has an emissivity of

0. 03, it has a reflectance of 0.97. Since it eliminates 97 percent of the radiant transfer potential, aluminum foil is very effective as an excellent radiant barrier and reflective insulation product.

Radiant Barriers Product description

Mass-type insulations limit heat flow by possessing low thermal con­ductivity, allowing less heat to be transferred, or by trapping still air within the insulation, thereby limiting convection. A radiant barrier is a reflective surface on or near a building component that inter­cepts the flow of radiant energy to and from the building component. Typically a layer of reinforced foil, a radiant barrier reduces the amount of heat radiated across an airspace that is adjacent to the radiant barrier. The effectiveness of a radiant barrier is based on its ability to reflect the radiation that strikes it and at the same time not radiate energy. As discussed earlier, the lower the emissivity, the higher is the reflectance and the better is the radiant barrier.

Radiant barrier materials must have high reflectivity (usually 0.9, or 90 percent, or more) and low emissivity (usually 0.1 or less) and must face an open airspace to perform properly. A radiant bar­rier by itself provides no thermal resistance; it must be installed in conjunction with an airspace. For example, aluminum foil is a good thermal conductor but has an extremely low R-value. If it is placed between materials that are attempting to transfer thermal energy by radiation, it must be separated from these materials by an air layer. The foil effectively eliminates the normal radiant energy exchange across the airspace. If the airspace is not maintained, conduction is introduced. For example, where a radiant barrier sur­face comes in contact with another surface, such as mass insula­tion, direct conduction of heat will occur at all the points of contact.

The Department of Energy (DOE) reported that radiant barriers tend to offer a much lower potential for energy savings in colder cli­mates. Radiant barriers are more effective in blocking summer heat gain and saving air-conditioning costs.1 At present, there is no stan­dardized method for testing the effectiveness of radiant barriers in reducing heating and cooling bills. Numerous field tests have been performed, however, that show that radiant barriers are effective in reducing cooling bills by limiting total heat gain. For example, solar energy is absorbed by the roof on a sunny day, which in turn heats the roof sheathing. This causes the underside of the sheathing and the roof framing to radiate heat downward toward the attic floor. If a radiant barrier is placed below the roof sheathing or on the attic floor, much of the heat radiated from the hot roof is reflected back toward the roof and not emitted to the attic airspace. This makes the top surface of the insulation cooler than it would have been without a radiant barrier and thus reduces the amount of heat that moves through the insulation into the rooms below the ceiling. The best results from this installation are achieved when there is venti­lation between the radiant barriers and the roof. This prevents that space from overheating and reducing the effectiveness of the radi­ant barriers. Test results indicate that cooling bill savings are more dramatic in homes having lower amounts of conventional insula­tion. The DOE has established typical savings amounts based on attic insulation values2 (Figs. 12.2 and 12.3).

The North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA) performed a number of tests in 1988 that studied the effects of adding radiant barriers to existing homes. These tests showed that radiant barriers located on the top of the rafters and draped between the cavities resulted in a 20 to 26 percent reduction in summer ceil­ing heat flow for a home with R-19 ceiling insulation. Studies were not performed with R-30 insulation and radiant barriers.3

Installation standards and practices

Radiant barriers can be manufactured in a variety of ways. Commercial products include radiant barrier material that is preapplied to rigid insulation, applied to structural sheathing, and as reinforced sheet radiant barrier material. Sheet materials include single-sided and double-sided foils. Radiant barriers that are manufactured as multilayered foil systems with airspaces are discussed in the reflective insulation section of this chapter. The application of sheet material is discussed in this section.

The installation of multiple layers of radiant barrier materials is generally discouraged. One layer of a typical radiant barrier mate­rial will block 95 percent of radiant heat gain. A second layer for the purpose of blocking additional radiant gain will block less than 5 percent. The material and labor costs incurred when installing

Present Value Savings for Radiant Barrier Attached to Bottoms of Rafters (Note: R-l 1, R-19, R-30, and R-38 refer to the existing level of conventional insulation.)

City

Present Value Savings, Dollars per Square Foot of Attic Floor

R-l 1

R-19

R-30

R-38

Albany, NY

0.17-0.19

0.08-0.09

0.04-0.05

0.03-0.04

Albuquerque, NM

0.24-0.27

0.12-0.15

0.08-0.10

0.06-0.08

Atlanta, GA

0.21-0.25

0.10-0.13

0.06-0.08

0.05-0.07

Bismarck, ND

0.18-0.20

0.09-0.10

0.05-0.06

0.04-0.05

Chicago, IL

0.17-0.19

0.08-0.10

0.05-0.06

0.04-0.05

Denver, CO

0.19-0.22

0.10-0.12

0.06-0.08

0.05-0.07

El Toro, CA

0.19-0.22

0.10-0.12

0.06-0.08

0.05-0.07

Houston, TX

0.23-0.28

0.12-0.15

0.07-0.10

0.05-0.08

Knoxville, TN

0.22-0.25

0.11-0.13

0.07-0.09

0.05-0.07

Las Vegas, NV

0.30-0.36

0.15-0.19

0.09-0.12

0.07-0.10

Los Angeles, CA

0.11-0.12

0.06-0.07

0.04-0.05

0.03-0.04

Memphis, TN

0.23-0.27

0.11-0.14

0.07-0.09

0.06-0.08

Miami, FL

0.28-0.36

0.15-0.20

0.09-0.13

0.07-0.10

Minneapolis, MN

0.18-0.19

0.08-0.10

0.05-0.06

0.03-0.04

Orlando, FL

0.26-0.32

0.13-0.17

0.08-0.12

0.07-0.10

Phoenix, AZ

0.36-0.43

0.17-0,23

0.10-0.14

0.08-0.12

Portland, ME

0.14-0.15

0.06-0.06

0.03-0.04

0.03-0.03

Portland, OR

0.14-0.16

0.07-0.08

0.04-0.05

0.03-0.04

Raleigh, NC

0.20-0.24

0.10-0.12

0.06-0.08

0.05-0.07

Riverside, CA

0.27-0.37

0.13-0.17

0.07-0.10

0.06-0.08

Sacramento, CA

0.23-0.26

0.12-0.14

0.07-0.10

0.06-0.08

Salt Lake City, UT

0.21-0.24

0.10-0.12

0.06-0.08

0.05-0.07

St. Louis, MO

0.21-0.24

0.10-0.13

0.06-0.08

0.05-0.07

Seattle, WA

0.11-0.12

0.05-0.05

0.03-0.03

0.02-0.02

Topeka, KS

0.22-0.26

0.11-0.13

0.07-0.09

0.05-0.07

Waco, TX

0.26-0.31

0.13-0.17

0.08-0.11

0.06-0.09

Washington, D. C.

0.20-0.23

0.09-0.12

0.06-0.07

0.05-0.06

Note: First value applies to houses with no air-conditioning ducts in attics. Second value applies to houses with air-conditioning ducts in attics.

Figures in table are based on a radiant barrier with an emissivity of 0.05 or less, with the radiant barrier covering the insides of the gables. Savings are for a 25 year period.

Figure 12.2 Energy savings. (Department of Energy) multiple layers will not be recouped by the additional energy use savings.

Likewise, a radiant barrier material with two foil sides is only modestly better than one with a single foil side. In an attic airspace, one foil side blocks up to 95 percent of the radiant heat transfer. A second foil surface can block only a portion of the remaining 5 per­cent. Therefore, a second foil surface usually is not cost-effective.

Attic locations

Radiant barriers are easiest to install during construction. Nevertheless, installing a radiant barrier system in an existing

Present Value Savings for Radiant Barrier Draped over Tops of Rafters or Attached to Roof Deck

(Note: R-l 1, R-19, R-30, and R-38 refer to the existing level of conventional insulation.)

City

Present Value Savings, Dollars per Square Foot of Attic Floor

R-l 1

R-19

R-30

R-38

Albany, NY

0.16-0.17

0.07-0.08

0.04-0.05

0.03-0.04

Albuquerque, NM

0.21-0.24

0.11-0.14

0.07-0.09

0.06-0.07

Atlanta, GA

0.19-0.22

0.09-0.12

0.06-0.07

0.04-0.06

Bismarck, ND

0.17-0.18

0.08-0.09

0.05-0.06

0.03-0.04

Chicago, IL

0.15-0.17

0.07-0.09

0.04-0.05

0.03-0.04

Denver, CO

0.17-0.19

0.09-0.10

0.05-0.07

0.05-0.06

El Toro, CA

0.17-0.20

0.09-0.10

0.05-0.07

0.05-0.06

Houston, TX

0.20-0.25

0.10-0.14

0.06-0.09

0.05-0.07

Knoxville, TN

0.19-0.22

0.10-0.12

0.06-0.08

0.05-0.07

Las Vegas, NV

0.27-0.32

0.14-0.17

0.08-0.11

0.06-0.09

Los Angeles, CA

0.10-0.11

0.06-0.06

0.03-0.04

0.03-0.04

Memphis, TN

0.20-0.24

0.10-0.13

0.06-0.08

0.05-0.07

Miami, FL

0.25-0.31

0.13-0.18

0.08-0.11

0.06-0.09

Minneapolis, MN

0.16-0.18

0.07-0.09

0.04-0.05

0.03-0.04

Orlando, FL

0.23-0.28

0.11-0.15

0.07-0.10

0.06-0.09

Phoenix, AZ

0.31-0.38

0.15-0.20

0.09-0.13

0.07-0.11

Portland, ME

0.13-0.13

0.06-0.06

0.03-0.03

0.02-0.03

Portland, OR

0.13-0.14

0.06-0.07

0.04-0.04

0.03-0.04

Raleigh, NC

0.18-0.21

0.09-0.11

0.06-0.07

0.04-0.06

Riverside, CA

0.24-0.33

0.11-0.15

0.07-0.09

0.05-0.07

Sacramento, CA

0.20-0.23

0.10-0.13

0.06-0.08

0.06-0.07

Salt Lake City, UT

0.19-0.21

0.09-0.11

0.05-0.07

0.04-0.06

St. Louis, MO

0.18-0.21

0.09-0.11

0.05-0.07

0.04-0.06

Seattle, WA

0.10-0.11

0,04-0.05

0.02-0.03

0.02-0.02

Topeka, KS

0.20-0.23

0.10-0.12

0.06-0.08

0.05-0.06

Waco, TX

0.23-0.28

0,11-0.15

0.07-0.09

0.05-0.08

Washington, D. C.

0.18-0.21

0.08-0.10

0.05-0.06

0.04-0.05

Note: First value applies to houses with no air-conditioning ducts in attics. Second value applies to houses with air-conditioning ducts in attics.

Figures in table are based on a radiant barrier with an emissivity of 0.05 or less, with the radiant barrier covering the insides of the gables. Savings are for a 25 year period.

Figure 12.3 Energy savings. (Department of Energy)

home can be relatively easy provided there is sufficient working room in the attic.

According to the DOE, there are five possible locations for the installation of an attic radiant barrier system to be effective2 (Fig. 12.4):

1. Before the roof sheathing is applied, the radiant barrier is draped over the rafters or trusses. The radiant barrier should droop 1V2 to 3" between each rafter. An airspace is necessary between the radiant barrier and the roof sheathing. This is suit­able for new construction only.

2. The radiant barrier is attached to the faces of the rafters or top chords of the roof trusses. If the barrier is single-sided, the reflec­tive face should face downward, toward the attic, to minimize any dust accumulation. An airspace (3/4M minimum) is necessary between the radiant barrier and the roof sheathing.

3. The radiant barrier is attached to the bottom of the rafters or top chords of the roof trusses. An airspace (3/4M minimum) is nec­essary between the radiant barrier and the roof sheathing.

4. The radiant barrier can be laid out on the attic floor over the top of existing attic insulation, provided the insulation does not fill the cavity. As with all radiant barrier installations, an airspace must be maintained to avoid any conductive heat transfer. If the barrier is single-sided, the reflective face should face downward, toward the attic insulation (and above the airspace), to mini­mize any dust accumulation. This application always should be done with a perforated radiant barrier and one that has foil on both sides for maximum performance.

5. The radiant barrier material is preattached directly to the underside of the roof deck. Plywood and oriented strandboard products laminated with foil on one side are available.

There are some basic safety considerations that an installer,

either a professional or a homeowner, should consider during radi­ant barrier installation:

1. Although American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) installation standards do not require special protection when handling radiant barrier materials, handling conventional insu­lation may cause skin, eye, and respiratory system irritation. If in doubt about the effects of the insulation, protective clothing, gloves, eye protection, and breathing protection should be worn.

2. Be especially careful with electrical wiring, particularly around junction boxes and old wiring. Never staple through, near, or over electrical wiring. Repair any obviously frayed or defective wiring in advance of radiant barrier installation.

3. Work in the attic only when temperatures are reasonable.

4. Working with a partner not only will expedite the process, but assistance will be immediately available should a problem occur.

5. Unfinished attics can be especially dangerous. Step and stand only on the attic joists or trusses, or use dimensional lumber for a working platform.

Product description

6. In most attics, roofing nails penetrate through the underside of the roof.

7. Make sure that the attic space is well ventilated and lighted.

8. Do not cover any recessed lights or kitchen and bathroom vents with radiant barrier material during an attic floor application.

Radiant barriers can be used above unheated basements and crawl spaces and in wall and floor applications. These assemblies require specific design conditions, airspace clearances, and vapor retarder placement to be effective. (Unless perforated, radiant barrier materi­als will qualify as a vapor retarder. Perforated foils typically are used only when laying on top of existing attic insulation.) Foil-faced fiber­glass batts with a fire-retardant binder, stapled to the sides of the wall studs, require an airspace between the foil facing and interior sheathing to be effective. A larger wall cavity, and subsequently deep­er wall stud framing members, will be required. Another less common technique is to use foil-faced gypsum wallboard over furring strips on the interior stud faces. The furring strips create an airspace between the foil facing and cavity insulation.

“Vent skin” construction is commonly used in Florida. In this assembly, a radiant barrier is applied to the exterior of the wall, followed by furring strips and sheathing. The airspace created by the furring strips typically is vented top and bottom so that out­door air can circulate into and through the space (Fig. 12.5).

Since radiant energy travels in a straight line through the air and is not affected by air currents, airtight seals are not necessary for a radiant barrier to perform effectively. Since radiant barriers are both barriers to heat transfer and vapor retarders, proper radi­ant barrier selection must be coordinated with vapor retarder placement to avoid trapping condensation in certain climates. Perforated radiant barriers are also used if moisture vapor con­densation could present a problem, as in placement of the radiant barrier on top of mass insulation on an attic floor.

Limitations

Since radiant barriers redirect radiant heat back through the roof, tests have demonstrated that radiant barriers can cause a small increase in roofing material temperatures. Roof-mounted radiant

Product description

Figure 12.5 Vented radiant barrier wall section. {Bynum)

barriers may increase shingle temperatures by 2 to 10° F, whereas radiant barriers on the attic floor may cause smaller increases of 2°F or less. The effects of these sustained higher temperatures on the roof shingles or substrate have not been shown to degrade the life of shingles.

If the radiant barrier is installed directly on top of attic floor insulation, condensation of moisture vapor can become a problem. For example, moisture vapor from the interior of a house may move into the attic during the winter months. A radiant barrier on top of the insulation could cause the vapor to condense on the radiant barrier’s underside. As is the case when a vapor retarder is placed on the wrong side of insulation, radiant barrier materials function as an additional vapor retarder on the opposite side of the wall cav­ity. For this reason, this application would call for a perforated radiant barrier. This can be especially critical in cold climates.

Installing a radiant barrier directly on top of attic floor insula­tion also can compromise its effectiveness due to dust accumula­tion. This location is also not appropriate when a large part of the attic is used for storage, since the radiant barrier surface must be exposed to the attic space. It also can be punctured or torn during any service work that may need to be done in the attic.

Durability during installation is an important consideration when comparing products. Thicker foil layers and the use of a rein­forcing material are superior to the lower-cost foils that have min­imal tear resistance.

Fire ratings

A radiant barrier must receive a Class А/Class 1 fire rating. A flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke development index of 450 or less must be achieved according to ASTM E84. These ratings should be printed on the product or listed on the manufacturer’s material safety data sheets (MSDS) or other technical data literature.

Cost

Installing an attic radiant barrier is obviously easier and less expensive during new construction. If a retrofit project is under­taken, the amount of room the contractor has to maneuver in in the attic will affect cost. Radiant barrier material costs vary, ranging from $0.10 to $0.45 per square foot. Although most materials can be installed by a homeowner, a contractor may charge an addition­al amount for installation costs.

The energy savings payback period will vary extensively, contin­gent on the cost of the radiant barrier installation, heating and cooling periods, amount of existing insulation, etc. Data are not available for specific calculations, but regional research in Florida suggests that a payback period of 10 years can be expected in hot southern climates.4

Reflective Insulation Product description

Unlike single-sheet radiant barrier materials, reflective insulation is a multilayer radiant barrier product with an intrinsic R-value. Comprised of layers of aluminum foil, paper, and/or polyethylene, the insulation creates reflective airspaces within the cavity, there­by reducing radiant heat transfer and heat flow by convection. The use of aluminum foil as a reflective insulation ensures a minimum 95 to 97 percent reflectance of long-wave radiant heat.

Reflective insulation installation applications are similar to those of radiant barriers. Since most foil-faced reflective insula­tion products also retard vapor transmission, special attention must be paid to vapor retarder placement in the wall, floor, or ceiling assembly. Trapping moisture between two vapor retarders can lead to condensation-related decay and damage. This can be problematic in attic floor insulation applications. If, for example, a vapor retarder is located on the interior ceiling side of the insu­lation, reflective insulation cannot be laid on top of the existing insulation.

Foil-faced polyethylene insulation

The most common reflective insulation products are foil-faced poly­ethylene sheets, which consist of layers of aluminum foil separated by polyethylene bubbles (Fig. 12.6). The polyethylene air cushion­ing can be from one to five layers depending on the manufacturer. Many products incorporate stapling flanges at the edge for easy installation. These products are noncarcinogenic, water-resistant, and fungus-resistant. With few exceptions, foil-faced polyethylene insulation is not restricted by code from being left exposed, provid­ed the product is classified with a Class 1, Class A fire rating.

Foil-faced polyethylene insulation is lightweight, easy to install with a staple gun, and can be cut using a utility knife. Tears or excess cuts usually can be repaired with 2 or 3M-wide pressure-sen-

Product description

Figure 12.6 Astro-foil reflective insulation. (Astro-Foil)

sitive aluminum tape. (Do not use duct tape.) A 3/4" minimum air­space must be maintained on each side of the insulation. The sizes available vary based on specific products. Rolls are usually avail­able in widths of up to 6 ft and lengths of up to 125 ft. Typical thick­ness are V4,3/16, or 5/16M.

Locations where reflective insulation can be installed include

1. Over roof trusses/rafters

2. Interior sides of wall studs/furring, exposed or encapsulated

3. Undersides of floor joists/trusses, exposed or encapsulated

4. Undersides of first floor joist/trusses at crawl spaces, exposed or encapsulated

5. Below interior ceiling joists/trusses/rafters, exposed or encapsulated

6. As a wrap for HVAC supply ducts

7. As a wrap for water heaters

8. As a wrap for water supply piping

9. As primary insulation for in-floor hydronic staple-up heating systems

R-values

R-values of reflective insulations depend on the direction of the heat flow. This can be confusing when one is accustomed to com­paring singular R-values for conventional mass insulations. For example, one manufacturer of 5/16M foil-faced polyethylene insula­tion reports R-values to be 15.0 down, 5.4 up, and 7.31 horizontal.

Sideways (horizontal) heat flow through a wall will result in nominal convection loss. Upward heat flow, as through the ceiling in the winter, is in the same primary direction as convection, so the R-value is significantly reduced. In downward heat flow appli­cations, such as through the floor to a crawl space in the winter or through the roof in the summer, convection is not a factor, resulting in maximum R-values. Reflective insulations must be installed with an airspace in order for the radiant heat to be reflected. Therefore, the R-values are reported as an installed sys­tem that includes the R-value of the surrounding airspaces.5 If the airspace dimension is changed, then the R-value of the system is changed.

Board and paper products

Foil-faced kraft paper is produced as a folded or rolled product and is available with two to five layers in a wide range of effective resis­tances. The airspaces are formed only when the product is stretched to its full width. Care must be taken in installation to ensure that the paper is sufficiently stretched and that foil layers are not touching, or the material will not be fully effective. Prices vary accordingly, from around 14 to 70 cents per square foot.6

There are a number of laminated structural sheathing materials, such as foil-faced paperboard, that have reflective surfaces but are not installed as radiant barriers. Production homebuilders (“nation­al builders”) commonly use these materials as the substrate for houses with vinyl siding. Installed in this manner, these products lack only an airspace in order to be used as a radiant barrier. Costs for these products range from 13 to 25 cents per square foot.6

A new name on the market is TechShield, and is produced by Louisiana Pacific. TechShield is highly polished, kraft paper-backed, perforated aluminum. Formerly labeled Kool-Ply, TechShield is a patented radiant barrier overlay that is laminated directly to either oriented strandboard (OSB) or plywood structural panels, and main­ly used as roof decking. TechShield radiant barrier decking is installed in the same manner as standard APA-rated sheathing. A V2 to 3/4" airspace must be maintained between the foil and the insula­tion blanket between the roof rafters or ceiling joists (Fig. 12.7).

Standards

The following are the ASTM standards associated with reflective insulation materials and radiant barrier products.

C236-89, “Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Performance of Building Assemblies by Means of a Guarded Hot Box”

C727-90, “Standard Practice for Use and Installation of Reflective Insulation in Building Constructions”

C976-90, “Standard Test Method for Thermal Performance of Building Assemblies by Means of a Calibrated Hot Box”

C1158-90, “Standard Practice for Use and Installation of Radiant Barrier Systems (RBS) in Building Construction”

Product description

Figure 12.7 Radiant barrier laminate. (Louisiana-Pacific Corp., Tech-Shield)

C1224-93, “Standard Specification for Reflective Insulation for Building Applications”

C1313-95, “Standard Specification for Sheet Radiant Barriers for Building Construction Applications”

C1340-96, “Standard Practice for Estimation of Heat Gain or Loss Through Ceilings Under Attics Containing Radiant Barriers by Use of a Computer Program”

C1371-96, “Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room Temperature Using Portable Emissometers”

E84-95b, “Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials”

E96-95, “Standard Test Method for Water Vapor Transmission of Materials”

Paints

Coatings can be applied to the interior of a home that will work as radiant barriers. Interior radiation control coating (IRCC) is a non­thickness-dependent silver-colored low-emittance coating. When applied to nonporous building materials such as plywood, OSB, met­al siding, or plasterboard, it lowers the normal surface emittance of these materials to 0.24 or lower. It is somewhat less efficient because of its higher emissivity when compared with a foil or film product.7

One manufacturer reports that about 40 percent of the radiant energy generated within a room in the winter is reflected back into the room after this paint is applied. Similar results are claimed in the summer: A room coated with a low-E (low-E is an abbreviation for low emissivity) wall paint on the interior of a building’s walls will not allow about 40 percent of the radiant energy to be emitted into the room.8

A water-based IRCC can be rolled or spray applied (either air atomization or airless is the most effective method of installation) in existing structures where the cost of installing foil or film products may be prohibitive. Brush painting is usually impractical because these coatings have a very low viscosity and are not formulated for brush application. It is imperative that after installation the surface painted with the IRCC face a minimum of a 2" airspace.

Technical data and field testing research are limited with these new products. Low-E coatings, as these products are commonly called, have a lower emissivity than the higher-build ceramic coat­ings. See Chap. 14 for a discussion of ceramic pigmented solar radi­ation control coatings for exterior application.

Low-E glass

In order to minimize the transfer of radiant heat through glass, a revolutionary product was invented in the early 1980s called low-E glass. Low-E glass allows natural light to enter, while reflecting indoor heat energy back into the home in winter. Likewise, it reflects outdoor heat energy back to the outside in summer.9 There are two types of low-E coatings, softcoat and hardcoat. Softcoat low-E coatings are vacuum deposited on the glass after it comes off the float glass manufacturing line. These coatings are created as the room-temperature glass passes through a series of vacuum chambers where metallic particles are deposited onto the glass sur­face.

Hardcoat low-E coatings are applied in a pyrolytic process on the float glass manufacturing line before the glass has cooled. This means the coating is sprayed on the molten glass and is fused to the glass as it cools, creating a permanent bond. Although this product is not as thermally effective as softcoat glass, the process produces a coating that is as durable as the glass itself.10

While ordinary clear glass allows more solar energy into your home than low-E glass does, clear glass has such a low R-value that it allows not only the solar energy gain but any furnace-generated heat (during the winter) to escape. Low-E windows can achieve R – values as high as R-5, a marked improvement over R-l single-pane or even R-2 double-pane windows. Low-E windows cost a little more than standard windows and allow slightly less light to enter but are often cost-effective in extremely hot or cold climates.11

Miscellaneous

As an interesting sidenote, reflective insulation is also available for windows. Proprietarily known as Sailshades, this product is a seven­layered roll product. When raised during winter days, Sailshades allow the benefits of the sun’s passive heating to reach the interior of the home. When lowered during winter evenings, the product serves as a wall of insulation for the structure. Similar to foil-faced polyethylene insulation, two outer layers of aluminum foil are bonded to a layer of polyethylene for strength. Two inner layers of bubblepack resist heat flow, whereas a center layer of polyethylene gives the insulation additional strength. The product features an

R-value as high as 8.83. The shades are custom made for each win­dow but are not cheap. A typical 24 X 48" window covering will cost about $176.12

Appendix

Radiant Barrier Fact Sheet

DOE/CE-0335P

June 1991

Department of Energy

Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

Andre O. Desjarlais

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

R O. Box 2008, MS 6070

Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6070

423-574-0022

Fax: 423-574-9338

E-mail: desjarlaisa@ornl. gov

http:// www. ornl. gov /

U. S. Department of Energy

Office of Scientific and Technical Information

RO. Box 62

Oak Ridge, TN 37830

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC)

RO. Box 3048 Merrifield, VA 22116 800-DOE-EREC (363-3732)

E-mail: doe. erec@nciinc. com

Florida Solar Energy Center State University System of Florida,

300 State Road 401

Cape Canaveral, FL 32920-4099

Reflective Insulation Manufacturers Association P. O. Box 90955 Washington, DC20090 800-279-4123

Astro-Foil Reflective Insulation

R+ Heatshield Radiant Barrier

ASTRO-FOIL Innovative Energy

Robert Wadsworth, President

10653 W. 181st Avenue

Lowell, IN 46356

800-776-3645

219-696-3639

Fax: 800-551-3645

E-mail :ie@astrofoil. com

http:/ /www. insul. net/common. html

ChemRex, Inc.

889 Valley Park

Shakopee, MN 55379

800-766-6776

612-496-6001

Fax:612-496-6058

E-mail: pault@chemrex. com

http:/ /www. radiancecomfort. com

Environmentally Safe Products, Inc. 313 West Golden Ln.

New Oxford, PA 17350 800-289-5693 717-624-3581 Fax: 717-624-7089 E-mail: espinc@low-e. com http://www. low-e. com

Innovative Insulation, Inc.

6200 W. Pioneer Parkway

Arlington, TX 76013

800-825-0123

817-446-6200

Fax: 817-446-6222

E-mail: insulation@earthlink. net

TechShield

Louisiana-Pacific Corp. Headquarters/Corporate Office 111 S. W. Fifth Avenue Portland, OR 97204 800-648-6893

E-mail: customer. support@LPCorp. com

References

1. “Radiant Barriers,” Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN), U. S. Department of Energy. Available at http:/ / www. eren. doe. gov / consumerinfo / refbriefs / bc7.html.

2. “Radiant Barrier Fact Sheet,” DOE/CE-0335P, June 1991, Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Available at http:/ /www. ornl. gov/roofs +walls/radiant/.

3. “Insulation vs. Radiant Barrier: A Performance Comparison,” Factsheet No. 40, Publication No. BI474, North American Insulation Manufacturers Association, June 1995.

4. FSEC Publication FS-37, Florida Energy Extension Service, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, January 1994. Available at http:/ /edis. ifas. ufl. edu/EH244.

5. Astro-Foil Reflective Insulation Web site: http:/ /www. astrofoil. com/rvaluel. html.

6. FSEC Publication DN-7, Florida Energy Extension Service, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, May 1994. Available at http:/ /edis. ifas. ufl. edu/EH244.

7. “Reflective Insulation, Radiant Barriers and Radiant Control Coatings,” RIMA, April 1999.

8. ChemRex, Inc., Web site: http://www. radiancecomfort. com/faqs/back- ground. asp.

9. PPG Product Literature, 5067P, October 1996, p. 22.

10. Edward Allen, Fundamentals of Building Construction (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990) p. 616.

11. “Low-E Window Glass,” SCANA Company/SCE&G, January 9,1998.

12. Sailshade Web site: http:/ /www. sailshade. com/purchase. html.

Chapter

13

Earth

Long before the age of manufactured insulation materials, human beings learned to survive against a climate’s thermal discomforts by using the most plentiful of all materials at their disposal: earth. Now, at the dawn of the twenty-first century, this same material is experiencing a renaissance in residential construction. Natural building systems such as adobe, cast earth, cob, wattle and daub, earth shelters, PISE, Earthships, and rammed earth are a few of the earth-based construction systems receiving attention. (Straw bale construction is discussed in Chap. 15.)

It may not seem within the scope of this book to review materi­als that at a first glance are not conventional insulation products. On closer inspection, however, earth shelters, rammed earth, and other natural building systems are significant and viable alterna­tives because of the intrinsic thermal mass possible when imple­mented in appropriate designs and climates.

Earth architecture may be the oldest form of construction in human history. Various forms of indigenous earthen structures and materials have been developed throughout the world. Today it is estimated that 40 to 50 percent of the world’s population still live in earthen dwellings.1

Cob is an old technique that offers the potential to create very sculptural wall shapes. Straw is mixed with small gravel into a sandy soil. The mixture is formed into cobs (lumps), which are thrown onto the wall and worked into the previous applied layer. The rough surface is later trimmed and made smooth. The result is

often a softly undulating surface that is commonly tapered inward toward the top. Cob has been used mostly in experimental build­ings in the United States, while code testing procedures are still being investigated.

Wattle and daub starts with a latticework of light branches or timber. An earth-plaster mix is forced (“daubed”) into the gaps in the latticework and finished to give a serviceable surface.

Adobe, or mud brick, is an ancient building technique dating back at least to the days of Jericho (now Israel) in 8300 B. c. Adobe structures built some 900 years ago in the United States are still in use today. The system of fabrication remains virtually unchanged. First, mud bricks are cast in open molds on the ground using a blend of earth and water with the consistency of cake mix. The molds are then removed immediately or allowed to remain until the next day. The bricks are eventually lifted onto their sides, trimmed, and stacked to air dry and cure.1

Rammed earth, also called stabilized rammed earth, is a process by which walls are formed in place by pounding damp soil into mov­able, reusable frames. Rammed-earth tire construction, also referred to as Earthships, use discarded automobile tires, recycled aluminum cans, and cardboard that are laid flat and rammed with soil.

Passive solar principles are essential to the effectiveness of earth design. Historians are quick to note that these strategies were hard­ly a result of the 1970s energy crisis. The Anasazi cliff dwellings, for instance, were built into south-facing cliff walls that received the sun’s rays during winter months and were shaded from the sun in the summertime. The Anasazi understood that in winter the sun travels low across the southern sky, and in summer it crosses high overhead. As with their cliff dwellings, passive solar homes with south-facing windows welcome the winter sun and are protected from the summer sun. (Fig. 13.1). Once the winter sun’s rays are in a home, the next requirement for passive solar heating is a place to store those rays. This is intrinsic to the success of the earth shelter, which uses its thermal mass to temporarily store and release heat.2

The ability of solid earth to function as a thermal mass results in interior temperatures that change very little from day to night. Mass walls absorb solar energy during winter days and then rera­diate that energy to offset nighttime heat losses within the building. In the summer months, the mass of the walls absorbs excess heat generated during the day, keeping the interior spaces cool. In a properly designed and oriented house, this typically means savings in heating and cooling bills as well as a more comfortable and even

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south-€ | WINTER

SUMMER L^^FALL

Figure 13.1 Seasonal sun angles. (.McGraw-Hill, Inc.) temperature throughout the home. The energy that determines the temperature inside the house radiates directly from the mass of the walls as opposed to a space regulated through mechanically altered air. Each of the systems discussed herein can be constructed with or without additional insulation. Climate, user preferences, and design standards determine the actual assembly configuration.

Ventilation requirements are of prime concern in an earth-inte­grated home because of the reduced amount of air infiltration. Approximately two air changes per day typically are desirable. Ventilation can be achieved by either a forced-air system or an oper­able window system with good cross-ventilation that takes advan­tage of natural air flows. Natural ventilation also can be maximized with a custom ventilation system designed for the particular floor plan, geographic area, and climate. Additional ventilation is also necessary if open-flame or gas appliances are used in the home.

The inclusion of these systems is intended to inform the reader of alternative construction assemblies that may or may not “be for everyone.” The very fact that many of these systems have been used for hundreds of years indicates that they are a viable alter­native to conventional home construction methods.

Earth Homes

For contemporary residential applications, earthen dwellings are commonly referred to as earth-sheltered housing. There are two
types of earth home designs. Earth-sheltered housing, or under­ground housing, is typified by a structure with two or, in most cas­es, three sides and the roof covered with earth. There are even successful designs that place the entire structure below grade or completely underground (Fig. 13.2). An earth-bermed house uses a conventional roof, with only the sides of the home partially pro­tected with earth (Fig. 13.3). Each type takes advantage of the nat­ural temperature of the earth. At 5 to 7 ft below grade, most climates will only reduce the earth’s temperature to around 53°F. This natural temperature regulator means the actual “work” of the mechanical thermal control systems to raise or lower temperatures to the desired human comfort level is greatly reduced.

There are a variety of reasons that homeowners provide when explaining their attraction to living in a home that uses soil as the primary building material. These include

1. Energy efficiency

2. Ecologically sound

3. Unique

4. Low life-cycle cost

5. Reduced maintenance

6. Solar heating

7. Water lines never freeze

Product description

Figure 13.2 Underground earth shelter. (.McGraw-Hill, Inc.)

Product description

Figure 13.3 Bermed earth shelter. (.McGraw-Hill, Inc.)

8. Storm resistant

9. Termite resistant

10. Rodent resistant

11. Earthquake resistant

12. Decay resistant

13. Fire resistant

14. Limited visual impact

15. Efficient land use

16. Wood conservation

17. Environmental benefits

The improvement in earth design systems over the past 20 years appears to have corrected many of the mistakes that plagued earth homes in the 1970s. There are a number of variations on a theme when it comes to specifying or constructing this building type. Proper research, inspection of existing structures, and sound construction practice by qualified contractors will provide a com­fortable, thermally efficient earth-sheltered home that will last many years.

Product description

There are three generic design types that are commonly found in earth-sheltered homes. These are referred to in this book as the atrium (or courtyard) plan, the elevational plan, and the penetra – tional plan. The atrium design is an underground structure in which an atrium serves as the focus of the house and the entry into the dwelling. Unlike the other two design types, the courtyard design offers an open feeling because it has four walls that give exposure to daylight. The subgrade open area, a central outdoor courtyard, is the entrance into the home and is surrounded by the major living spaces. The windows and glass doors that are on the exposed walls facing the courtyard provide light, solar heat, outside views, and access via a stairway from the ground level. Atrium homes are usually covered with less than 3 ft of earth and provide ample access to natural ventilation, primarily because there is no benefit in energy efficiency from greater depths (Fig. 13.4).

The elevational plan is a bermed and roof-covered structure that typically has a glazed, south-facing entry. The other sides and roof

Product description

floor plan

Product description

are typically covered with earth. The exposed front of the house, usually facing south, allows the sun to light and heat the interior. The floor plan is arranged so that common areas and bedrooms share light and heat from the southern exposure. One drawback is that the northern portions of the house may have reduced daylight and limited internal air circulation unless a custom-designed fresh air ventilation system is installed. Skylights and an open floor plan can help alleviate these problems. Historically, a structure designed in this way has been the most popular and the most eco­nomical to build of all earth-sheltered structures. Contemporary

Product description

floor plan

Product description

designs are now more adventurous; two-story plans, cathedral ceil­ings, and vaults are slowly becoming the norm (Fig. 13.5).

In the penetrational plan, the house is built at ground level or partially above grade and is bermed to shelter the exterior walls that are not facing south. Earth covers the entire house except around the windows and doors. This design allows cross-ventila­tion opportunities and access to natural light from more than one side of the house (Fig. 13.6).

The most efficient designs reveal that an airtight wood stove or a small efficient forced-air furnace may be all that is necessary to provide supplemental heat. The only electrical demands come from a small blower that circulates the heat from the wood stove throughout the house. Some homes also have incorporated radiant floor heat, small geoexchange systems, or area heaters in the prime

Product description

Figure 13.6 Penetrational earth-sheltered home. (McGraw – Hill, Inc.)

living areas. Supplemental heat sources also may be preferred in the bathroom areas.

Adequate air exchange must be planned carefully when building an earth-sheltered dwelling. Generally well-planned natural or mechan­ical ventilation (by exhaust fans) can dissipate ordinary odors. Any combustion appliances that are installed should be sealed combus­tion units that have a direct source of outside air for combustion. It is mandatory that the combustion gases are vented directly to the out­side. Ventilation and exhaust systems for radon presence also must be addressed in earth-sheltered house design and site selection.

Energy-efficiency claims have far too many variables to rely on one set of statistics in reference to this overview. Typical results based on data gathered for this book show that homeowners may save up to 80 percent in heating and cooling costs as compared with conventional homes, depending on the number, orientation, and treatment of open­ings. The thermal mass of the earth ensures that the home will nev­er drop to less than +50°F without heat, even in mid-winter.3

Additional insulation in an earth-sheltered home will depend on the climate, house design, and construction materials used. For example, cold spots can be eliminated in the structure by specify­ing 3" of polystyrene insulation placed over the exterior concrete walls prior to backfilling and 6" of insulation over the roof covered by 3 ft of dirt.3

Although specifications will be designer-specific, one builder typ­ically constructs homes with a standard 8-ft-high wall of 8M-thick poured-in-place concrete, designed for a minimum of 650 lb/ft2 lat­eral load.4 The standard ceiling is 10 to 12" of concrete designed for a vertical load of 790 lb/ft2. This system also allows for a minimum of 3 ft of earth cover.4

Limitations

Studies show that earth-sheltered houses may be more cost-effec­tive in climates that have significant temperature extremes and low humidity, such as the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains. The earth temperatures vary much less than air temperatures in these areas, accentuating the design advantages of the earth berm as a thermal mass, thereby eliminating the need for a more complex heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system.

Topography plays an important role in site selection. For exam­ple, a modest slope requires more excavation than a steep one, whereas a flat site needs the most extensive excavation. Research suggests that the most ideal site is one that has a south-facing slope in a region with moderate to long winters. Construction in other regions or facing in other directions uses skylights and a more complex HVAC system (Figs. 13.7 and 13.8).

Product description

Figure 13.7 Earth shelter on a flat site with berm. (Davis Caves Construction, Inc.)

Product description

Figure 13.8 Earth shelter on a steep slope. (Davis Caves Construction, Inc.)

Soil tests must be performed prior to site or design selection because some types of soil are more suitable than others for earth – sheltered construction. For example, the best soils are granular, such as sand and gravel. These soils compact well for bearing the weight of the construction materials and are very permeable, allowing water to drain quickly. The poorest soils are cohesive, like clay, which may expand when wet and has poor permeability. If clay is encountered on site, it is recommended that a porous back­fill such as sand or gravel or a drainage mat be used.

Groundwater is also an important factor. Besides building above the water table, choosing a site where the water will naturally drain away from the building is the best way to avoid water pres­sure against underground walls. Swales and drainage systems must be designed to run water away from the structure to reduce the frequency and length of time the water remains in contact with the building’s exterior.

There are a number of waterproofing systems in use today. Although many systems are effective, the best option will possess the following characteristics:

1. Long life-expectancy underground

2. Resealing capacity at underground temperatures

3. Good crack-bridging capability

4. Durability or protection during backfilling

Such systems include but are not limited to

1. Rubberized asphalt (Bituthene)

2. Plastic sheets such as high-density polyethylene and high-den – sity polyethylene

3. Liquid polyurethanes

4. EPDM membranes

5. Bentonite

Installation standards and practices

The characteristics of the site, climate, soils, design, and budget will aid in determining the construction materials to be used. Earth – sheltered houses will require stronger, more durable construction materials than above-grade conventional homes because they must be able to withstand the stress imposed by the surrounding earth. When soil is wet or frozen, it exerts greater pressure on the walls, ceiling, and floors of such a building than the pressure that already exists. Pressure also increases with depth, so a material such as concrete may be the best choice, although reinforced masonry, wood, and steel are also suitable if properly engineered.

Cast-in-place concrete has the most advantages as a construction material. Minimal joints, durability, fire resistance, material strength, and thermal mass qualities are ideal for earth-sheltered design. It also provides a good surface for applying waterproofing. If additional insulation is used, it must be protected to withstand the pressure and moisture of the surrounding ground. Masonry products such as brick or concrete masonry units are also used, but the nec­essary sealing of mortar joints can be problematic. Although wood can cost less than other materials, it does not offer the strength that a material such as steel does, so it may not be the best choice for structural material in some houses. Steel can be used for beams, bar joists, columns, and concrete reinforcement. Protection against cor­rosion is required if it is exposed to the elements or to groundwater.

Fire resistance

Depending on the material selection, earth-sheltered houses can be made virtually fire-resistant. Concrete or masonry shells, concrete slab floors, and steel-framed interior walls sheathed with type X or fiber-reinforced gypsum board will eliminate most ignition sources. Special selection of furnishings is necessary to guarantee a com­prehensive fire-resistance design.

Rammed Earth

Rammed earth is a building technique that dates back to at least 7000 B. c. in Pakistan. Portions of the Great Wall of China, as well as a five-story hotel built in Germany in 1837, also were construct­ed of rammed earth. Even in the United States, thousands of rammed-earth houses were built during the Great Depression.1

It is important to explain that a rammed-earth wall assembly is not an insulator in the true sense of the definition. The actual insu­lating value (the resistance to the transmission of heat applied to one side of the wall to the other side) is poor. As mentioned earlier, earth walls are actually good capacitors, serving as good, but tem­porary, heat-storage masses. Commonly referred to as the flywheel effect (the ability to absorb energy and reradiate it over time), the earth can store the energy for constant slow reradiation, resulting in a very smooth temperature swing curve for the building. This principle also applies to the proper placement of thermal mass ele­ments such as floors and interior walls that even out temperature variations in a building due to the temperature storage capabilities of the building’s mass.

In a real building application, the interior temperature will be an average of the high and low temperatures outside from several days earlier. This is called the thermal-lag effect While the outdoor tem­perature may vary 30 to 40°F in a 24-hour period, the inside changes will vary only a few degrees. Thus, when the temperature is 90°F in the day and 60°F at night for several days, the inside of the building will approximate 75°F. The thermal lag is proportional to the wall thickness but influenced by the solar gain. In Arizona, for example, the thermal lag on a 24M-thick rammed-earth wall can be up to 3 days. Designers state that this is most effective when the extreme temperature swings between day and night are over 40°F.3 Additional insulation also may be necessary, depending on the extent the passive solar principles are applied to the overall design of the home.

Rammed-earth walls are formed in place by pounding damp soil into movable, reusable frames (formwork) with manual or machine – powered pneumatic tampers. The earth material is typically mixed with about 8 percent water and 3 percent cement, although this may vary depending on the soil used. The earth is compacted (tamped) in 4- to 6-in lifts in enclosed formwork similar to that of cast-in-place concrete. Also referred to as stabilized earth, these walls achieve compressive strengths estimated to be about half that of concrete. The walls act as a thermal mass, usually requiring no additional insulation. Rammed-earth walls can be 12 to 36" thick but are typi­cally 18 or 24" thick. The final density is usually around 125 lb/ft3, giving the wall excellent thermal properties. The virtually mainte­nance-free walls do not require additional finishes unless aestheti­cally desired. They are also fire-resistant and extremely durable.1

One difficulty with the rammed-earth method is that strict lim­its have to be placed on shrinkage to eliminate cracking. Often cement or hydrated lime is added to improve durability, but suc­cessful structures are built using suitable soils without such addi­tives. A sandy, crumbly soil (with a clay content around 15 to 30 percent) may be the best choice because of its good workability and minimal shrinkage.

Product description

Rammed-earth walls can be constructed in one of three typical systems:

1. Individual panels of earth are enclosed within a framework of cast-in-place concrete.

2. The earth walls are fully reinforced with an integral grid of steel reinforcing rods.

3. A continuous solid-earth wall is topped with a bond beam of reinforced concrete.

The finished solid-mass earthen wall, as it comes out of the form, may be finished with exterior stucco and interior plaster. Newer design trends seem to indicate that the natural finish of the rammed-earth wall is growing in popularity. In climates where rainfall can be extreme, walls should be protected against satura­tion with roof overhangs and elevated foundations. If waterproof­ing is omitted, moisture may penetrate all the way to the inside surface of the walls during prolonged wind-driven rainstorms.

Additional costs incurred will vary depending on the site, the height and complexity of the wall system, the available soil, and the seismic safety factors. The cost increase over conventional wood-frame construction will be a minimum of 10 percent.

Limitations

It is important to recognize that rammed-earth construction is a “made by hand” product and will exhibit the inconsistencies that characterize any handmade item. For example, the color and tex­ture of the finished wall will vary. Some areas may be rough or inconsistent in density. Construction tolerances will need to be more forgiving than those used in typical construction practice. Shrinkage cracks, honeycombing, and voids are also likely to occur.

PISE (Pneumatically Impacted Stabilized Earth)

Another form of monolithic earth wall construction is PISE (Pneumatically Impacted Stabilized Earth). A single form is con­structed to shape the interior wall surface. Wire reinforcement is then attached, and a mix of earth and cement is sprayed onto the out­side. A patented process developed by David Easton, PISE uses a gunite hose (similar to the hose used to spray concrete to wall forms or pools) to directly apply rammed earth into the frames. Using one­sided formwork and high-pressure air delivery, trained crews can complete up to 1200 ft2 of 18M-thick wall per day. A training program is required before a subcontractor is qualified to shoot PISE walls.

Earthships

Earthships is the popular term for what are actually rammed-earth tire homes. This construction system, using passive solar design and recycled materials, was developed by Michael Reynolds of Solar Survival Architecture. The environmentally conscious system uses recycled automobile tires filled with compacted earth for ther­mal mass and structure. The homes can be dug into south-facing hillsides or located on flat sites and bermed to obtain additional thermal mass.

The construction system is actually very simple. The first course of tires of any tire wall must be leveled and dug into undisturbed soil. Tires are laid flat and rammed full of approximately three wheelbarrow-loads of soil. Each tire weighs about 350 lb, and the tires are set in a running-bond fashion. All tire walls that are an integral part of the roofed building should have a continuous wood or concrete bond beam serving as a top plate.

Between 500 and 2500 tires are used in a rammed-earth tire home (for homes of 1000 to 4000 ft2). Earth is bermed against the outsides of the tire walls, while 2 to 4" of plaster or stucco cover the inside of the tire wall. (Foam insulation also can be applied to exposed exterior or interior walls and covered with stucco.) The building is framed in wood on the south side and roofed with met­al to collect rainwater. Aluminum or tin cans are also used for fill­ing in concrete walls that are not load-bearing. Other systems include integrated wastewater treatment, photovoltaic electrical systems, solar hot water, and passive solar heating.

Indoor air quality and other potential environmental problems are still being studied. Published research at present seems to sug­gest that rubber degradation, carbon black vapor, or other chemi­cal off-gassing may not pose a serious health hazard in this type of construction.5

Appendix

Davis Caves Construction, Inc.

Marty and Ruthanne Davis

P. O. Box 69

Armington, IL 61721

309-392-2574

Fax: 309-392-2578

Email: daviscaves@daviscaves. com

http://www. daviscaves. com/

The Energy Efficient and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC)

P. O. Box 3048 Merrifield, VA 22116 800-DOE-EREC (363-3732)

Fax: 703-893-0400 E-mail: doe. erec@nciinc. com

Earth Sheltered Technology, Inc.

Jerry Hickock, President Box 5142

Mankato, MN 56001

800-345-7203

507-345-7203

Fax: 507-345-8302

http:/ /www. earthshelteredtech. com/

Rainforest Action Network 221 Pine Street Suite 500 San Francisco, CA 94104 415-398-4404 Fax: 415-398-2732 rainforest@ran. org

Rammed Earth Networks, Inc.

David Easton

101 South Coombs, Suite N

Napa, CA 94559

707-224-2532

Fax: 707-258-1878

www. rammedearthworks. com

Rocky Mountain Research Center RO. Box 4694 Missoula, MT 59806 406-728-5951

Solar Survival Architecture

Michael E. Reynolds, Principal Architect

P. O. Box 1041

Taos, NM 87571

505-751-0462

Fax: 505-751-1005

http:/ /www. earthship. org/

http: / /www. earthshipbiotecture. com /

Quentin Branch

Rammed Earth Solar Homes, Inc.

1232 E. Linden Street Tucson, AZ 85719 520-623-6889 Fax: 520-623-3224

E-mail: Info@RammedEarthHomes. com http:/ /www. rammedearthhomes. com/

The American Underground-Construction Association 511 11th Avenue South, Suite 248 Minneapolis, MN 55415 612-339-5403

References

1. Rainforest Action Network Web site: http://www. ran. org/ran_campaigns/ old_growth / earth_arc. html.

2. Quentin Branch, Rammed Earth Solar Homes, Inc., 520-623-6889

3. Earth Sheltered Technology, Inc., Web site: http:/ /www. earthshelteredtech. com/ faq. htm.

4. Davis Caves Construction, Inc., Web site: http:/ /www. daviscaves. com/

5. “Use of Scrap Tires in Civil and Environmental Construction,” Environmental Geo-technics Report No. 95-2, Geotechnical Engineering Program, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, May 10, 1995. Available at http:/ /www. earthship. org/pages/offgas. htm.

Chapter

14

Coatings

Ceramic Coatings

Insulating coatings (more accurately named reflective paint coat­ings) have been used in industrial applications for years. Until recently, the white roofs seen on many a yellow school bus were perhaps the closest this innovative technology made it into the res­idential environment. These ceramic coatings basically reflect solar radiant energy and are now being found in a number of residential applications. The ceramic technology in this fluid-applied insula­tion is a “cousin” to the ceramic particles in the heat shield tiles used on the space shuttles to block heat during reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere. These coatings contain hollow ceramic bubbles that have a tremendous ability to reflect and dissipate heat. Extremely durable and easy to apply, the paint’s thermal proper­ties of reflection, refraction, and dissipation make it a good insula­tor for walls, roofs, and even interiors. Ceramic-filled paint provides benefits year-round, but it is particularly effective at blocking the radiant heat from the summer sun. It is not intended to replace thermal mass insulations, however, especially in north­ern climates where retaining indoor heat is of primary concern.

Most products consist of a 100 percent acrylic elastomeric emul­sion containing ceramic microspheres that range in size from 10 to 100 |mm. Since ceramic particles block radiant heat, it is difficult to give this paint a typical R-value rating, yet tests demonstrate a sig­nificant drop between inside and outside temperatures of wall and roof installations. These coatings are typically nontoxic, although

there are epoxy-based and urethane-based coatings for industrial applications. The elastomeric coatings for residential use possess excellent resistance to changes in weather.

Product description

Ceramic-filled paints for residential application are available as acrylic, acrylic-elastomeric, and urethane – or epoxy-based. The water-based products are the most popular for residential use at present because of their ease of use and cleanup.

Certain characteristics among all types make the idea of an “insulating paint” actually possible. Ceramic paint has tiny micro­sized hollow ceramic particles or flat platelets in a water-based acrylic vehicle. In the paint can the spheres are suspended, making the paint look and feel like ordinary paint. When the paint is applied, the spheres or platelets move toward the surface to create a heat-reflecting and heat-dissipating surface. As the paint dries on a surface, the microspheres pack together underneath to create an insulating barrier.

Residential consumers have reported that the dried paint looks just like typical exterior house paint. Many of these coatings are designed for high build and can stretch and contract substantially without breaking or wrinkling. Most products can be rolled or brushed on, but spraying will depend on the specific manufacturer’s instructions.

Ceramic-filled coatings can seal a substrate and provide a water­proof surface. They are also suitable on metal surfaces where expansion and extreme weathering characteristics, including resis­tance to ponding, are important. Most products provide a 10- or 15- year limited warranty against chipping, flaking, and peeling. The manufacturer’s full written warranty should be reviewed for more specific information.

R-value

R-value ratings are not available for liquid coatings, although man­ufacturers report a simplistic variety of equivalences in their prod­uct-specific literature. These range from equivalent R-values of R-10 to R-24. Color choice influences the effectiveness, with white coatings providing the higher R-values.

Limitations

Ceramic paints are designed to protect against radiant heat and have a reduced effect on conductive heat. The use of these coatings is much more effective in keeping heat out in the summer, but they will, to a lesser degree, keep heat in during the winter.

Color selections are limited. One manufacturer provides only an antique white that is tinted with up to 8 oz of colorant per gal­lon. Bright white is the most efficient, but tests show that reflec­tive properties are dramatically decreased after minimal color is added.

Fire resistance

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard E84- 87 tests of products reviewed for this book report that ceramic paints have both flame spread and smoke development ratings of 5.

Installation standards and practices

Ceramic-filled paint typically is applied at a thickness of up to 15 mil, much thicker than ordinary house paint. This heavy coat often covers small cracks and imperfections and to a small degree even reduces noise indoors. Additional paint can be applied but may not be cost-effective after two or three coats.

Temperature recommendations for application vary among prod­ucts, typically to a maximum air temperature of 110°F. As with all products, manufacturers’ instructions need to be followed for prop­er application procedures.

Paint Additives

As presented in the Preface of this book, the specific mention of a commercial name does not imply endorsement, nor does failure to mention a manufacturer imply criticism. Research for this book, however, revealed only one manufacturer of paint additives for insulating coatings.

Product description

INSULADD is a ceramic microsphere paint additive that is mixed with ordinary paint to block heat transfer through surfaces. Formulated for use with interior and exterior latex house paints, this additive is also suited for industrial coatings, roof coatings, epoxy, urethane, and high-temperature paints.

As in premixed ceramic coatings, INSULADD works by refract­ing, reflecting, and dissipating radiant heat. The adhesion, useful service life, coverage, or color of the base paint is reportedly not affected by the additive. INSULADD is suitable with all interior and exterior paints, regardless of the brand.

The mixing process is very simple: Stir one bottle of the additive in with 1 gal of paint. If a sprayer is to be used for paint applica­tion, a slightly larger spray tip than normal is needed, and all screen filters should be removed. Two coats of paint with INSU­LADD in each coat are recommended for the best results. A cover­age rate of 200 ft2/gal for most house paints on smooth surfaces should be achieved.

R-value

The manufacturer claims that an equivalent R-value of R-20 can be obtained relevant to radiant heat gain when INSULADD is mixed with a light-colored house paint.

Appendix

INSULADD Tech Traders, Inc.

307 Holly Road Vero Beach, FL 32963 888-748-5233 Fax: 561-231-5233 E-mail: info@insuladd. com http:/ /www. insuladd. com

Nationwide Chemical Coating Mfrs., Inc.

6067 17th Street East

Bradenton, Florida 34203-5002

800-423-7264

941-753-7500

Fax: 941-753-1773

Email: natchem@compuserve. com

http:/ / www. nationwidecoatings. com

Thermal Control Coatings

P. O. Box 250052

Atlanta, GA 30325

404-846-0044

Fax: 404-365-0423

E-mail: info@thermalcontrol. com

Chapter

15

Integrated Insulation Systems

This chapter explores several products and methods that could not be categorized by conventional means. Integrated insulation sys­tems refer to an insulation application that is of and by itself all – inclusive as a wall or roof system assembly. The insulation is not applied in the traditional construction sense but is integral to the construction assembly. Without the insulation, there is not a wall or roof. Structural insulated panels and insulating concrete form – work are basically hybrid systems, using familiar insulation prod­ucts and construction materials to form a complete shell assembly. The third system discussed, straw bale construction, has been in use for over 100 years and is a unique commodity in that the mate­rial used to achieve the insulation value is also the material used to achieve structural integrity. As mentioned earlier, the use here­in of a commercial name does not imply endorsement, nor does fail­ure to mention a name imply criticism. The proprietary nomenclature is included to provide clarity only.

Structural Insulated Panels

Structural insulated panels, also known as stressed skins, stress – skin panels, sandwich panels, and structural foam panels, generi – cally are referred to as SIPs. The basic building unit of this system is a sandwich-type panel typically made of two “skins” of wood structural sheathing with a foam core that combines the structural, wall, and roof sheathing with the insulation in a single construction

step. (Other materials can be used as “skins,” as discussed later in this chapter.) The system provides efficient solutions to such con­cerns as energy efficiency and dwindling natural resources while saving construction time and labor that results in cost savings not only to the contractor but also to the consumer. SIPs, emerging as a unique alternative building technology for residential building envelope construction, are also being used in panelized housing and commercial and multifamily projects.

SIP technology was first used in residential construction as ear­ly as 1952, when Alden B. Dow, architect and son of the founder of the Dow Chemical Company, began designing homes to be con­structed of SIPs. The first of these was built in Midland, Michigan, that year, using foam-core SIPs for exterior walls, interior parti­tions, and roofs.

The energy crunch of the 1970s provided the opportunity for SIP manufacturers to gain additional market share, but it was not until the 1990s that the panelized system gained acceptance. A study prepared for the Structural Insulated Panel Association (SIPA) revealed that SIP production in the United States in 1991 was 15 million ft2, equivalent to all the walls and roofs in about 4000 homes. This rate is expected to grow to levels ranging from 50 to 112 million ft2 by the year-end 2000, depending on the aggressive­ness with which the industry markets its products. The increase in manufacturing space for SIP lamination and fabrication reinforces this trend, growing from 555,108 ft2 in January 1996 to 1,148,108 ft2 as of October 1999.1

SIPs are also one of the featured technologies of the Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) initiative. PATH is a public-private partnership that includes government (Department of Energy, Housing and Urban Development, Environmental Protection Agency, Labor, Commerce, Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Department of Defense) and industry working together to develop, demonstrate, and deploy housing technologies and practices so that homes can be built more cheap­ly, more environmentally sustainably, with more disaster-resis­tance, and to provide a safer working environment.

Product description

Although product types vary in the industry, the common charac­teristics of all SIPs are two exterior skins adhered to a rigid plastic foam core (Fig. 15.1). The skin provides the tensile and compressive

EXTERIOR

Подпись:Подпись: FOAM COREПодпись:Product descriptionSHEATHING

strength, whereas the foam core provides the rigidity. This is anal­ogous to the I-beam, with the skins performing not unlike the flanges and the foam core corresponding to with the web.

Panels are available in a variety of sizes and thicknesses depend­ing on application requirements, from 2 to 12" thick, and in sizes from the standard 4 X 8 ft to 8 X 24 ft. This is ideal for their pri­mary application: the exterior structural walls and roofs of low-rise residential and commercial buildings (Figs. 15.2 and 15.3).

The skins of a panel can be of the same or differing materials. The most commonly used are oriented strandboard (OSB) for exte­rior and interior faces. Waferboard, plywood, sheet metal, cementi­tious fiberboard, and gypsum board are also available from various manufacturers. The rigid foam cores that provide the insulation value are composed of a variety of foam products depending on the proprietary product’s manufacturer (Fig. 15.4).

Product description

Figure 15.2 SIP wall panel. (.R-Control Building Systems)

These include the following:

■ Expanded polystyrene (EPS), also known as headboard

■ Extruded polystyrene (XPS), commonly referred to as green board by Amoco or Styrofoam or blue board by Dow

■ Polyurethane

■ Polyisocyanurates, a polyurethane derivative characterized by its yellowish color in foil-faced applications

(Agriboard uses compressed agricultural fiberboard as a structural insulated panel core bonded to oriented strandboard skins. Manufactured from the straw of cereal grains and native grasses, the product was discontinued in 1999, but similar straw-based products eventually may return to the market.2)

Product description

Figure 15.3 SIP wall panel (.R-Control Building Systems)

EPS is used most commonly because of its low cost and simple manufacturing process, but EPS cores, with a lower R-value, must be made thicker to be equivalent to the higher insulation proper­ties of other foam products. Nevertheless, foam products have bet­ter insulation per inch of thickness than fiberglass and better insulation at lower temperatures and higher humidity than fiber­glass for decreased energy use for heating. As a result, the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are both proponents of the use of SIP in construction (see EPA/DOE Energy Star Program). Polyurethane and polyiso – cyanurates are more heavily scrutinized as to actual R-value because blowing agents are used in the production of these two materials that actually evaporate over time, thereby reducing the advertised R-value.

With the high insulation value and low infiltration, a SIP home can be cooled or heated with much smaller heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment and much less electrical

Product description

Figure 15.4 SIP. (.R-Control Building Systems)

energy. Consequently, the homeowner’s electricity bill each month will be much less. The SIP home costs about 5 to 10 percent more initially, but this extra cost is quickly offset by additional savings in energy bills. Studies have shown that building with SIPs can result in homes that are up to 60 percent more efficient than site – built homes of comparable size. Wall panels can deliver R-values of R-14 to R-24 and roof R-values of up to R-41 or more, depending on the thickness of the foam core and the manufacturer’s system of fabrication.

Panel shipping is economical within a 300- to 500-mile radius, although due to limited manufacturing production availability, most manufacturers indicate that 30 percent or more of their busi­ness is shipped 1000 or more miles away. Structural panels typi­cally bear a stamp indicating compliance with building standards and requirements.

SIPs are also recognized for their added security benefits by pro­viding a solid barrier to intruders and vandals. The design of this panel, with its two skins over a foam core, is far more resistant to punching or cutting than the all-too-popular thin foam wall.

Prices vary depending on the panel composition and thickness. A typical engineer-stamped R-17, 35/8M-thick, 4′ X 8′ SIP will cost around $80 to $100 per panel.

Panel manufacturing process

SIPs are factory fabricated under controlled conditions, usually subject to a continuous program for quality control and supervi­sion. Although manufacturing techniques vary among companies, two assembly processes are most prevalent: adhesive-bonding and foam-in-place.

The manufacturing process may vary slightly between manufac­turers but typically begins with a large OSB panel on a trolley. Foam sheets are then placed on the OSB skin. After a structural – grade adhesive is applied, the rigid foam core is placed on top of a clean sheet of facing material, and the second panel (or skin) is positioned on the opposite side of the insulation core, completing the sandwich. Pressure is applied to the newly formed panel for some period of time. This is done with either an ingenous press (a vacuum on the bottom side and atmospheric pressure on the top) or a hydraulic press. Panels are then set aside until the adhesive has cured completely, about 24 hours.

With the foam-in-place method, the facing boards are held apart by panel-framing or specially made spacers. The chemical compo­nents of the foam core, together with a blowing agent, are combined and forced between the braced skins. The expanded insulation material forms a bond with the facing material without the use of any adhesives.

Material properties

SIPs are capable of sustaining all types of loads that are typically imposed on walls, floors, roofs, and other load-bearing elements. They are essentially stressed-skin panels; the cores of rigid plastic foam provide shear strength, and the exterior skins of structural materials provide tensile and compressive strength. A panel’s structural composition can be compared with that of an I-beam.

The panel skins are analogous to the flanges of an I-beam, where­as the foam core is comparable with its web. The complete assem­bly, with exterior and interior faces properly laminated to the foam core, allows for a system that is structurally superior to conven­tional stud frame structures.

Panels used for exterior walls are load-bearing and can be used to form the entire wall. They also can be applied to framing as non – structural exterior insulated cladding or as a curtain wall. A load – bearing wall panel has superior axial load-bearing capacity, i. e., the strength to support vertical loads from the roof or floor above. A con­ventional framed wall is designed to support these vertical loads only through its studs. The exterior sheathing, if plywood, provides no contribution because it must have gaps between sheets and is not continuous. Other forms of sheathing are also discounted for the same reason. On the other hand the sheathing on SIPs can use all its capacity to support vertical loads because buckling is prevented by the continuous reinforcement action of the foam core.

The uniform, consistent composition of a SIP, with supportive sheathing on both sides of the core, is superior to a frame wall in racking resistance. The SIP sheathing is adhered to the foam core over the entirety of the panel, and edges are fixed to splines, result­ing in the development of excellent racking resistance. This char­acteristic is an important attribute for resisting earthquake and hurricane forces.

SIPs exhibit other superior structural/strength characteristics. They are highly resistant to local loading. This is evident when one “thumps” a wall panel. The SIP will exhibit a uniform solid sound as opposed to a hollow sound between studs. This means that fas­teners with proper anchors for railings, cabinets, fixtures, wall – mounted brackets, etc. can occur anywhere in a SIP wall, but only at studs or other reinforced locations in frame walls.

A SIP wall has great resistance against buckling and bending when compared with equivalent conventional stud construction. This means that a taller wall can be built without increasing wall thickness, or that a wall can resist greater perpendicular loads from such forces as hurricanes.

SIPs are virtually impervious to warping and shrinking and pos­sess excellent dimensional stability. The DOE issues a warning, however, as to the problems with insect infestations. EPS, polyurethane, and polyisocyanurate provide an ideal environment for an insect nest. Insecticides need to be administered to the ground and, if available, the actual panel.3

The structural properties of SIPs are as beneficial in their roof applications as when they are used for walls. Flat or sloping roof panels can be stand-alone structures like wall panels or can span between framing members like rafters. When they form a sloping roof, they naturally create a cathedral ceiling on the interior. In bending, the thickness of the foam core dictates and limits the span­ning distance by virtue of its shear strength and bond to the sheath­ing. Similarly, the depth of rafters limits conventional roof spans.

The horizontal loads imposed on buildings during earthquakes or extreme winds can be effectively resisted by the roof’s diaphragm action. This two-dimensional structural continuity provides rigidi­ty and stability to the building as well as creating an uninterrupt­ed layer over supporting beams or bearing members. Because SIPs provide the bending strength necessary to withstand live (snow) and dead (roofing and equipment) loads, they usually can span freely from the ridge beam to exterior walls or between widely spaced beams or purlins. If greater rigidity is required, SIPs may be manufactured with increased bending strengths and reduced deflection. In addition to wall and roof panels, SIPs can be used for floors and foundation walls when designed for these specialized applications.

Fire resistance

The flammability of SIPs depends on the composition of the panel and the type of insulation used in the panel core. For example, EPS has a fire-retardant bead that is used in the manufacturing process and makes it self-extinguishing once the flame source has been removed. Building codes require installation of a thermal barrier, typically V2" gypsum wallboard, over the panels on the interior side for fire resistance for a 15-minute rating. A 1-hour fire resistive assembly can be achieved by adding two layers of 5/8" type-X gyp­sum board.4

Exposed EPS insulation is affected by intense fire-related heat. According to the DOE, EPS can deform at 167°F and subsequently melt at 200°F. Tests by Underwriter’s Laboratory (UL) indicate modest melting of 2" of the foam core in the vicinity of an inten­tionally set fire; however, the panel skins did not sustain notable damage elsewhere. Actual building fires have revealed that the EPS SIPs fared well.3 Another advantage of panel buildings over stick-frame buildings is that there are no air cavities in the walls to create a “chimney effect.”

SIPs also have demonstrated resistance to seismic activity. One SIP manufacturer has documentation of six homes that withstood the 7.2 magnitude earthquake in Kobe, Japan, in January 1995.

R-value

The foam plastic core of a SIP provides its insulation properties. Depending on the type of foam used (e. g., EPS, XPS, polyurethane, or isocyanurate), R-values are in the range of approximately 4 to 7 per inch of foam thickness. This results in superior energy perfor­mance characteristics in walls and roofs. For example, a 4V2M-thick SIP wall is often used as a substitute for a 2 X 4 stud wall. (A SIP wall with V2" of gypsum wallboard is 5" thick, as opposed to the 4V2" overall thickness of a wood stud wall.) Although both have 3V2" of insulation, the SIP wall has insulation R-values in the range of R – 14 to R-25, whereas the stud wall with fiberglass or mineral wool only has an R-value of R-11 to R-15.

The overall R-value of the stud wall must be downgraded to take into account the part of its area that is occupied by wood framing. This is anywhere between 15 and 18 percent of the wall in which there is no insulation. The core of a SIP, which usually has no stiff­eners between splines, is filled entirely with rigid foam. This means there is no thermal bridging. Moreover, when compared with stick-built structures, SIPs have fewer gaps, less settling or compression, less moisture absorption or dust saturation, and few­er cavities that permit convection or air circulation. All these char­acteristics would reduce insulation performance if present in a wall system. Oak Ridge National Laboratory tests suggest that a SIP performs at 97 percent of the stated R-value, losing only 3 percent to nail holes, seams, splines, and wiring cavities.5

The results are evident in both quantified and empirical data. For example, the overall R-value of a conventional wall with 2X4 studs and 3V2" of R-13 fiberglass, as indicated in the Thermal Envelope Compliance Guide to the Model Energy Code, is R-13.1. An equivalent SIP wall with 3V2" of extruded polystyrene foam (R – value = 17.5) is R-20.

As mentioned earlier, EPS is the most common panel core. A 472M-thick panel provides an R-value of R-14 to R-17, a 6V2n-thick panel provides R-22 to R-25, an 874M-thick panel provides R-29 to R – 36, a 10V4n-thick panel provides R-37 to R-45, and a 1274M-thick panel provides an R-value of 44. (The range of R-values is contin­gent on the specific manufacturer.) Needless to say, these panels also offer superior acoustical properties because noise transmission is diminished owing to the wall’s thickness.

Other nonspecific factors seem to influence the superior perfor­mance by SIPs when compared with stick-built wall assemblies with the same R-value. This may be due to the differences between foams and fibers in the degradation items that are not included in R-value calculations, such as gaps, moisture, dust, settling, and others.

This was clearly illustrated in a recent field test conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) under sponsorship of the DOE. Two identical houses were built side by side in Louisville, Kentucky, simultaneously, by the same builder. One had conven­tional framing, and the other was built with SIPs. However, wall and roof thicknesses were adjusted so that both had the same cal­culated R-values. Both houses were monitored for heat loss perfor­mance, and the SIP house dramatically outperformed the frame house. More important, efforts to forecast seasonal heating energy savings showed a 14 to 20 percent savings for the SIP house in Kentucky’s climate. In the published report, the researchers stated that "… there seem to be other factors, which remain unaccounted for, which cause the panel house to use less heat energy.” Homeowners throughout the United States are experiencing bene­fits though lower heating costs, reduced draft, and greater comfort.

Numerous SIPA members, for example, have cited testimonials from owners of SIP homes whose fuel bills have been as much as 40 to 60 percent below those of conventional construction homeowners.

It is widely recognized by energy-performance specialists that urethane foam and XPS are subject to thermal drift, or outgassing of blowing agents from foam cells over time. As a result, the R-val – ue of these cores falls gradually until the thermal drift ceases to have an impact and there is no further degradation. EPS cores are not subject to thermal drift, which results in a constant R-value. EPS foam-core panels have a nominal R-value of 4 per inch. Polyurethane and isocyanurate foam-core panels have a nominal R-value of 6 to 7 per inch. Both contain a blowing agent that escapes over time, subsequently lowering the R-value of each of these foam products.3 XPS cores have R-values of 5 per inch, indi­cating that this is the long-term constant after all thermal drift adjustments. Producers of other foams also quote R-values at the fully aged rate, but exact values need to be confirmed by designers.

Unlike fiberglass batts, SIPs are resistant to moisture absorp­tion. Although every attempt should be made to ensure that the panels are kept dry, SIPs will retain their R-value even if some moisture absorption does occur.

Wood frame walls are required to have vapor barriers installed “on the warm side” of fiberglass or mineral wool to prevent water vapor penetration, which may condense and degrade insulation performance. SIPs do not need vapor barriers at all because mois­ture does not materially affect performance.

In reality, except in such extreme climates as those in Florida and Alaska, it is difficult to identify “the warm side” of fibrous insu­lation. In Virginia, for example, the warm side is on the inside of the wall in the winter and on the outside in the summer. In Colorado, it can be on the inside at night and the outside during the day. Whenever the vapor barrier is on the incorrect side, water vapor can penetrate and degrade the insulation. Because of nail holes, minute cracks, holes in framing for wiring, and cutouts for receptacles and other penetrations, it may be virtually impossible to prevent water vapor penetration of fibrous insulation, a concern nonexistent with SIP.

This is also a critical issue with typical stick-built roofs. An air­space is required by code to protect the roof system. Because of the presence of water vapor, moisture can condense in the roof system. An airspace is not necessary in SIP roof construction because air vapor cannot enter the system. Another concern would be heat buildup in the roofing mass when asphalt shingles are used. This is a critical issue during the summer months, since heat can pre­maturely age some roofing products. Several major roof-shingle manufacturers have approved the use of SIPs and are upholding their shingle warranties.

The foam core in a SIP extends uninterrupted in all directions throughout the entire panel, which can be as large as 8 X 24 ft in area. Breaks in the foam insulation occur less frequently, usually only at panel connections, which are few, or at openings. A frame wall has connections wherever the sheathing or gypsum wallboard joints occur—every 4 ft or so. And because of the nature of panel assembly, the foam is tightly packed against both sheathing faces and perimeter joints.

SIPs form structural envelopes that are extremely tight against infiltration of air, a major source of energy loss. This is primarily due to the large uninterrupted areas of insulation in the panels. In frame walls not only are there frequent joints between sheathing at studs (a weak link in envelope continuity), but there are also nail or screw penetrations at every stud and on both sides of the wall.

Moreover, common points of leakage such as electrical outlet vents and other envelope penetrations often are more difficult to seal in frame structures. Even if these penetrations are poorly sealed in a SIP structure, the insulation performance is not compromised by air circulation into the insulation cavity. This results in exception­ally tight SIP houses, as compared with framed structures, that exhibit very low levels of air infiltration with resulting increases in building energy efficiency and interior comfort.

In the FSEC test in Kentucky, the SIP house proved to have a natural infiltration rate of 0.21 air changes per hour. This com­pares remarkably well with the average for new houses, in the range of 0.5 to 0.7. More important, however, it is even lower than the recommended minimum of 0.35 (according to ASHRAE Standard 62-1989). Further, it may require a fresh air ventilation system to provide makeup air, according to FSEC researchers. Large differences in air infiltration rates can have dramatic impacts on energy consumption. For example, a difference in air infiltration rates of 0.4 air changes per hour (0.21 versus 0.61) between a SIP house and a conventional house can represent fuel consumption savings in the range of $95 per year (in Texas) to $181 per year (in Minnesota) for a 1540-ft2 house.

Some people may question why one would build a very tight house and then install a fan to ventilate it. It is important to under­stand that relying on random leaks in the building and unknown pressure forces due to wind and temperature does not ensure ade­quate ventilation. Thus it often leads to overventilation and high energy bills or underventilation with possible moisture and health concerns. Further, with leaky duct systems, there can be pressure imbalances that can cause heating systems to malfunction, result­ing in health and safety problems.

Environmental considerations

SIP construction can be considered an engineered system. Innovation in the plastics and wood products industry is largely responsible for the rapid growth of new products now used in SIPs: first, plywood and, since 1980, oriented strandboard. The development of these products has a common goal: the need to conserve scarce resources and provide for the optimization of the forest. SIP technology allows society to use forest products that are fast growing and thus renew­able. Panel manufacturers are able to remove the strength-reducing characteristics of wood (i. e., knots, splits) and produce superior engi­neered products. This turns moderate-cost, low-quality hardwoods and plantation thinnings into superior structural building compo­nents. As a result, a greater amount of the tree is used, and fewer wood fibers are used to produce a more consistent product than that used in conventional framing.

It is also important to note that the skins of SIPs are made of ori­ented strandboard (OSB). This OSB is made with new-growth “junk” wood (aspen, jack pine, etc.) that can be regenerated in 5 to 10 years rather than old-growth lumber such as redwood, ponderosa pine, or yellow pine, which are necessary in stick-frame construc­tion. The panels use one-fourth as much wood as stick-framing methods. The EPS is manufactured without the use or production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). Since the insulation is bonded to the sheathing, there is no shrink­age of materials, saving time and money.

Quality-monitored manufacturing systems allow SIP producers to enhance the environment through the efficient use of valuable resources. Systematic design and production techniques significant­ly reduce process and construction site waste, requiring less landfill disposal, contributing to our country’s resource and solid waste management goals. Designers can optimize the building design using SIPs, resulting in more efficient use of construction materials.

SIP openings for windows and doors are often precut at the fac­tory, reducing the expense of debris disposal from a job site. During panel manufacture, the foam-core materials are optimized for the particular application. Waste materials are limited through creative design and resource management. Sometimes leftover panel pieces and scraps are used for do-it-yourself retro­fit applications or even dog houses. Often, unused foam that may be generated in the manufacturing process can be returned to the foam manufacturer, who can reprocess it into appropriate appli­cations or send it to a recycler for further reprocessing. Recycling is one method for handling waste. However, if recycling is not a satisfactory option given a site’s geographic location, foam plastic can be safely land-filled. SIP foams are stable and will not biode­grade or create leachate or methane gas, the two major problems with all landfills. Construction materials are often used in “stable landfills” where the ground is later reclaimed for parks, stadiums, and other similar applications.

In addition, SIP foams can be incinerated safely at regulated waste-to-energy facilities. Its energy value (greater than some soft coals) can provide a secondary fuel source for greater savings to the local utility company. EPS burns cleanly and produces almost no toxic ash. It does not require hazardous landfill disposal.

Noise pollution, the introduction into buildings of unwanted sound, is another form of environmental pollution that concerns many peo­ple. SIPs are excellent barriers to airborne sound penetration. This is due to the combination of their closed construction (no air movement in the panel wall) and extremely tight joint connections.

The formaldehyde that is emitted by the OSB skins is less than 0.1 part per million (ppm), well below levels established as accept­able by the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The rigid foam cores and the structural water-based adhesives used in the manufacturing process have no formaldehyde content.6

The issue of air quality is a concern to the public, regulating agencies, SIP producers, and foam manufacturers. EPS foam cores are produced using materials that have never had any adverse effect on the protective stratospheric ozone layer. All U. S. extrud­ers of polystyrene foam had switched to HCFC-142b by 1991, two years ahead of EPA deadlines for CFC phase-out. HCFC-142b is 90 percent less harmful to the ozone layer than its predecessor, CFC – 12. Plastic industry members are working to exceed current and future air quality standards through improvements in materials, processing, and control equipment.

Installation standards and practices

Panels are used in construction either as “generic panels” or as parts of a “package unit.” Generic panels are produced in varying thicknesses and different material combinations but in standard sizes such as 4′ X 8′. Each panel has explicit physical properties and strength characteristics, and typically panels are sold to builders and others without knowledge of the end application. This is similar to the sale of plywood panels to builders, who are informed of their strength and properties by the manufacturer’s load tables and other standards. It is the builder’s responsibility to cut the plywood panels and install them properly in buildings. (One manufacturer actually verifies the panel’s engineering and appli­cation prior to delivery.)

A packaged unit is quite different. The plans of the entire build­ing are analyzed, and panels are designed specifically for each wall, roof, or other application. The manufacturer, often with CAD-gen – erated shop drawings, can precut each panel to precise dimensions, with cutouts for window or door openings. Edges, angles, and all
other complex configurations can be cut at the factory. Then all the panels required for an entire building are packaged and shipped to the construction site. This could easily be a great distance, although it is likely that sources of panel production or distribution are locally available to most builders.

Подпись: war. Jr * Figure 15.5 SIP adhesive/sealant. (R-Control Building Systems)

Panels are light in weight, generally under 4 lb/ft2 of panel (472" thick), and most walls are installed by hand. Connections are made with adhesives and screw fasteners (Figs. 15.5 and 15.6). Panels also may be lifted into position by crane, hoist, or other equipment (Fig. 15.7). Cranes are particularly useful in setting roof panels or lifting bundles of panels to upper floors. SIP walls and roofs are erected quickly and made weathertight very early in the construc­tion sequence.

Product description

Figure 15.6 SIP screw fasteners. (.E-Control Building Systems)

Product description

Figure 15.7 SIP installation. (.R-Control Building Systems)

Construction time savings are evidenced when interior gypsum board or other finish is installed. The continuous nailing surface of the OSB skin allows the framer, gypsum wallboard crew, etc. to be unconcerned with locating studs for screwing or nailing.

The exterior finishes of walls, applied to OSB or other sheathing, can include the entire array of available materials (e. g., siding,
brick, stucco). Sloping roof panels can be finished with shingles, tile, metal, or other materials (Figs. 15.8 and 15.9).

SIPs made by many if not all manufacturers typically are listed by independent testing agencies and are recognized by ICBO, SBC – CI, and BOCA. National building codes readily accept SIPs for their strength and energy performance properties, provided manu­facturers can produce documentation to verify that panels meet structural and quality-control requirements for their intended application. Builders and designers should check with the manu­facturer for specific compliance with applicable building codes.

Connections and joints

One of the strength characteristics of SIPs is the ability to provide superior building performance, partly because of tight connections

Figure 15.8 Roof panel installation. {R-Control Building Systems)

Product description

support of roof panel.

Figure 15.9 Eave detail. (R-Control Building Systems)

at the joints between panels. Another strength is the connection between panels and such other adjacent structural elements as beams, purlins, and columns.

Several common wall panel connection methods are used by SIP manufacturers today. A conventional approach involves fitting a 2 X 4, 2 X 6, or larger spline, having the same depth as the foam core, between panels and securing it to the facing material (Fig. 15.10). Each panel edge is prerouted to fit half the width of each spline. The 2X splines use readily available lumber and provide stability. With the double 2X connection approach, the splines themselves bear the building loads. This makes the system, with appropriate headers installed, a cohesive post-and-beam structure.

Panels are fastened together with wood or OSB splines and zinc galvanized screws or ring-shank spikes. Dimensional lumber (2X)

Product description

is used for top and bottom plates and for headers and sills. Panels typically are rated as header material up to 4 ft. Once a foundation is completed, a panelized shell structure can be completed in a mat­ter of days. One erection contractor quotes 3 days of erection time per 1000 ft2 building. A typical 1600-ft2 home takes 3 to 5 days to assemble, including floor, walls, and roof.

The thin-spline approach involves fitting two thin splines (approximately V2 to 3/4" thick by 3 to 4" wide) laterally into pre­routed grooves in each panel edge. Each spline is usually double glued, stapled or nailed, and caulked at the seam between panels.

No single connection method has proven itself superior over oth­ers. Other approaches include

1. A premanufactured, laminated, thermally broken spline

2. A premanufactured locking arm built into each panel

3. A roll-formed steel joint

Individual panel manufacturers recommend the method that is most suitable for their system. For purposes of this discussion, 2X splines will be used.

SIPs are not damaged by rain, but long-term exposure to water could cause the panel edges to swell. After erection of the panels, the edges should be sanded down with a belt or disk sander.

Openings

Rough openings for doors and windows can be precut at the facto­ry, easily cut on site, or accomplished by inserting a filler panel as required. Headers must be installed for window or door openings of more than 4 to 6 ft and usually can be eliminated for smaller open­ings. Since solid plating is installed around doors and windows, the normal technique consists of routing out approximately 1V2" in of foam around the perimeter of all rough openings for a 2X framing installation. The framing works effectively as a nailing surface. When nailed to panels above rough openings, the framing let into the panel adds to the box beam effect (Fig. 15.11).

Electrical and plumbing

Wiring a SIPs home is not difficult but may require some nonstan­dard techniques. Since interior partitions typically are stick built, it is best to make use of the interior walls whenever possible. Most SIP panels come equipped with prerouted electrical wiring chases. These chases create a network of cored-out space through which wiring can be run from the building exterior or basement up through walls and floors to the attic. Wiring chases are predrilled vertically at panel edges, or horizontally at predetermined loca­tions above the finished floor. Some manufacturers typically core at

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Product description
Product description

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12 and 44" above finished floor (aff) (Figs. 15.12 and 15.13). UL – approved romex cabling is typically used for residential and light commercial installations.

Many contractors prefer (or if recommended by a specific panel manufacturer) to take horizontal wiring runs through the base­ment or ceiling joist cavity when horizontal coring is not possible or provided. A raceway behind the wood baseboard, or other type of surface-mounted wire mold, is also a common design feature. This arrangement also allows for flexibility in the field as well as after construction is complete (Fig. 15.14).

Receptacle outlets and switch boxes usually are attached to panel splines or hung on brackets attached to the interior facing material. Wiring for these fixtures as well as thermostats also can be easily installed vertically in the panel edge before the rough door openings are closed in with 2 X 4s. The chases drilled though the roof panels are ideal for running sprinkler piping throughout the roof of the house. If plumbing fixtures are to be located along

Product description

Figure 15.12 Electrical chase locations. (.R-Control Building Systems)

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Figure 15.13 Field cut-out for electrical box. (R-Control Building Systems)

an outside wall, a furred wall is recommended. It is necessary to predrill 2X splines to allow the horizontal chases to continue unobstructed.

Insulating Concrete Formwork

Insulating concrete formwork (ICF) is a cost-effective, flexible, modular, permanent concrete form system. The basic units of this system are EPS forms that are filled with concrete and steel rein­forcing (Fig. 15.15). The departure from typical poured-in-place

Product description

concrete construction is that the EPS formwork is left in place after the concrete cures for permanent insulating value.

Product description

There are two types of forms: planks and blocks. Planks are indi­vidual boards that are assembled onsite with the specific manufac­turer’s inserts or spacers. Blocks are prefabricated ICF units that are set in place in a stacking system (Figs. 15.16 and 15.17).

Product description

Figure 15.15 Installing ICF. (.R-Control Building Systems)

As mentioned earlier, EPS is foamed polystyrene, a common plas­tic. (Close visual inspection reveals thousands of tiny white beads.) Its closed-cell, air-filled structure possesses a high resistance to heat flow as well as high mechanical strength relative to its weight. EPS gives the added advantage of being lightweight. In combination with concrete, the system has high insulation values for both thermal and acoustical applications. The flexibility as a wall system makes it unique in that almost any type of wall or foundation system can be built cost-effectively, whether or not thermal and acoustical qualities are required. The EPS is flame – retardant and is designed to withstand the rigors of wet-poured concrete. Finally, no CFCs or HCFCs are used or produced during the creation of EPS.

Although the specific cross-sectional and modular relationships may vary from product to product, the basic concept does not. The foundation or basement wall is assembled by placing interlocking EPS forms one on top of the other (as well as side by side) in a run­ning or stack bond fashion (depending on the system). The forms are held together (or apart, actually) by integral plastic web ties, teeth, or other interlocking design mechanisms. Steel reinforcing is then placed within the forms, and the concrete is poured. It is important to note that although discussed primarily as a founda­tion system in this chapter, most ICF systems also can be used for full-height walls, including door and window openings. One manu­facturer’s portfolio includes bridge abutments, swimming pools, and even grade beams.

The basic ICF concept of a stay-in-place, easy-to-assemble form-

Product description

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Figure 15.17 Block system. CAmerican Poly steel, Inc.)

work is the same among manufacturers; however, proprietary dimensions and physical properties vary slightly. This book does not pass judgment on the superiority of one product versus anoth­er. The contractor or homeowner can review the advantages and disadvantages of each. For example, R-Control Insulated Concrete Form by AFM Corporation, Polysteel, SmartBlock, and AAB Blue Maxx were reviewed for this book (see Appendix for manufacturer data). Polysteel has been manufacturing ICF since 1978; AFM has been making EPS products for over 30 years.

As mentioned earlier, the ICF system(s) are either assembled onsite or are prefabricated. Two examples of the site-assembled ICF systems are the R-Control Insulated Concrete Form and the

SmartBlock by ConForm. R-Control Insulated Concrete Form uses 1 X 8 ft EPS panels connected by a Diamond snap-tie every 12" horizontally and vertically. These panels are factory notched for tie placement, field assembled, and can be custom configured for the appropriate condition. The wall thickness, determined by the wall tie, is available in 4, 6, 8, and 10". R-Control Insulated Concrete Form’s EPS panel has an insect-resistant additive. ConForm’s SmartBlock is 10" wide, 10" high, and 40" long, which creates a 6V2"-thick, 87 percent solid concrete wall. Each block weighs approximately 2 lb. (The variable form is 12" high and creates nom­inal wall widths of 4, 6, and 8".) CFCs, HCFCs, or other toxic sub­stances are not used in its manufacture.

In contrast to the site-assembled plank-type systems, Polysteel is a prefabricated block unit, commonly referred to as an “oversized Lego block.” The basic unit measures 48" long, and 9V4" high, or 11" wide. Each block weighs approximately 5 lb, has interlocking tongues and grooves, and has integral furring strips. AAB Blue Maxx’s standard unit measures 48" long, 11V2" wide, and 163/4" high and weighs approximately 6.2 lb.

The EPS formwork is nonstructural because the structural integrity of the assembly comes from the concrete poured within. The strength of the assembly permits it to be used in almost any civil or structural application to replace concrete block, poured-in – place, or low-rise tilt-up concrete construction. Concrete, when placed inside a formed wall, cures under almost ideal conditions. This temperature control during curing provides a 50 percent increase in compressive strength over conventional formed con­crete, according to the Portland Cement Association.

Cost advantages of using ICF can be realized in a variety of ways. According to the ConForm literature, comparative costs range from 30 to 50 percent lower than conventional walls. Stay-in-place form – work eliminates the need for and cost of buying, stripping, cleaning, transporting, and storing reusable forms. The improved fire rating frequently reduces insurance costs and results in higher appraisal values than stick-built homes. Polysteel Forms reports lower life- cycle costs, such as cost savings from utility bills. For example, a home that costs $820 per year to heat and cool with stick-built con­struction is reduced to $240 per year when built entirely of poured – in-place concrete. Construction time and personnel are also reduced. The AAB Blue Maxx system states that a three-person team can erect the formwork, place the steel, and pour the concrete for a 2000-ft2 house in 1 day (Figs. 15.18 and 15.19).

Product description

Figure 15.18 Residence during construction. (American Polysteel, Inc.)

Product description

Figure 15.19 Finished construction. (American Polysteel, Inc.)

R-value

The moisture-resistant, closed-cell configuration of EPS gives superb insulating qualities that will not deteriorate with age. The typical R-values are as follows: R-Control Insulated Concrete Form is R-20, Polysteel is R-22, SmartBlock is R-22, and AAB Blue Maxx is R-26. The principle of permanent insulated formwork containing a high-heat-capacity material such as concrete creates the optimal thermal construction assembly because the structure (concrete) is the thermal mass and the formwork is the insulation. Thus the costly application of additional insulating material is eliminated. The result is an ideal combination of materials that significantly reduces energy consumption in moderate and extreme climates. Polysteel Forms create a superinsulated concrete wall that reduces heating and cooling costs by 50 to 80 percent.

American Polysteel, manufacturer of Polysteel forms, performed an ASHRAE computer simulation on their 6" Polysteel form R wall filled with concrete as compared with a low-mass, high-R-value wall. A Polysteel wall of R-17 was used for the test. Although the test simulation was run for all climates and regions, the illustra­tion results were quite astounding. An exterior wood frame wall of a home in Miami, Phoenix, or Seattle would need to be insulated to more than R-50, whereas a home in New York City, St. Louis, or Washington, D. C., would have to equal R-37 in order to equal the thermal properties of the test wall.

An air barrier is not necessary because of the inherent solid mass properties value of the concrete. One common culprit is also elimi­nated, in that outlets do not allow air infiltration. A vapor barrier may not be needed in most climates due to the high insulation of the wall assembly. (This requirement should be verified with local building codes and applicable construction practices.) Damp-proof­ing and waterproofing are required in wall assemblies when used below grade. As stated earlier, verify construction assemblies with the manufacturer’s details and instructions.

Sound transmission class (STC) is a single-number rating of the sound insulating value of a material or assembly. The higher the number, the better is the insulator. The STC ratings of concrete and gypsum wallboard, along with the ideal separation that EPS creates between the two materials, provide sound insulation qual­ities, both airborne and impact, that meet the separation standards of the major building codes and FHA without the application of oth­er acoustic material. For example, Polysteel walls provide an STC of 48 as compared with 32 for a 2 X 6 wood frame wall. AAB Blue Maxx provides an STC of 53, whereas ConForm (including two lay­ers of V2-in GWB) provides an STC of 52.

Because each modular unit is so lightweight, pallets can be easi­ly lifted manually from delivery trucks, moved around, and placed anywhere on the building site. The need for forklifts or other heavy equipment is usually eliminated, resulting in more cost savings for the contractor and the consumer. For example, one 6-lb Polysteel form creates the same amount of wall area as would 140 lb of con­crete block. Similarly, a 40-lb ConForm pallet produces the equiva­lent of 500 lb of concrete block for the same area (Fig. 15.20).

EPS forms are designed to meet or exceed the minimum materi­al requirements of all major building codes in the United States, Uniform Building Codes (UBCs), Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO), and Building Officials Code Administration (BOCA). It is important to note, however, that not all the “newer” manufacturers have been approved by the proper code authorities. Specifiers and homeowners need to verify that the product to be used has been approved.

Polysteel walls, with an insulation value of R-22 (filled with rein­forced concrete), are bullet-resistant. Proper detailing, caulking, and waterproofing will minimize outside air infiltration, leaks, and drafts. Although some manufacturers claim that the formwork will not be eaten by wood-eating termites or ants, it is still prudent and recommended to sufficiently treat the soil and ICF for these vermin.

Installation standards and practices

These products are described as “builder friendly” and do not require a special skilled labor force. Most manufacturers indicate

Product description

Figure 15.20 ICF Installation. (American Polysteel, Inc.)

that the learning curve is minimal. Since each system reviewed in this book varies to some degree, specific installation instructions must be followed relative to the specific manufacturer. No two sys­tems are alike, so the following are generalized application direc­tions that were not covered elsewhere in this book.

Footings are required and should include rebar dowels for tying the walls to the footing. If stepped footings are required, it is pre­ferred to step in vertical increments consistent with the modular form unit height.

For plank systems, a 2 X 4 should be nailed to the footing to guide placement of the first course. Corners are braced and angles cut on both sides. Vertical bracing is applied with “kickers” and ladder brac­ing per manufacturer’s recommendations (Figs. 15.21 and 15.22).

In the case of a prefabricated modular block, such as Polysteel, the first block is set at the corner. Each ICF block is set on anoth­er in a running bond after each course is completed. In the case of R-Control Insulated Concrete Forms, preformed corner pieces are set against the outside toe plate (used as a guide). The first pair of 8-ft planks are assembled upside down with half ties and then flipped. The remaining prebuilt sections are set continuously around the perimeter, and the second and subsequent courses are set in a stack bond (Figs. 15.23 and 15.24).

Concrete should have a slump no greater than 6" with a recom­mended aggregate size of 3/8M. Always check slump yourself before pouring. On hot days, or if concrete stays in the truck too long,

Product description

Figure 15.21 Installation of corner units. (.R-Control Building Systems)

Product description

recheck slump. Stiff concrete is a problem. If high-strength con­crete is used, or if significant rebar is placed, extra care must be taken to ensure proper filling and elimination of air pockets. Using a rebar to spread the concrete will help, and vibrating by pounding with a mallet (use a section of plywood to protect the foam) will help consolidation. Concrete admixtures can be used for special applications (Fig. 15.25).

Product description

At the top of the wall, the concrete is screeded and troweled smooth, and anchor bolts are set. In general, hot and cold water pipes and electrical conduit and wiring can be placed in chases routed with a hot knife or cut into the wall after the concrete has cured sufficiently (Fig. 15.26).

Interior finishes of wood paneling or GWB and exterior finishes of board and batten siding, wood, vinyl or aluminum siding, brick, stone, or even stucco can be applied to any of the products. The method of attachment varies with each product. For example, screws are set only at each tie with the R-Control Insulated Concrete Form system, whereas Polysteel has integral furring strips, and GWB is typically adhered to ConForm’s SmartBlock.

Straw Bale

Straw is the dried dead stems of cereal grains after the seed heads have been harvested. These grains include wheat, oats, barley, rye,

Product description

flax, and rice. Straw is different from hay, which is grown for live­stock feed and is baled green with the leaves and seedheads includ­ed. As the grains are harvested, the straw is tightly packed into bales that are tied with wire, plastic, or sisal string. Unlike hay grasses that are harvested green as livestock feed, straw has a high silica content that reduces its flammability, is nonnutritious, less attractive to pests, and is naturally resistant to rotting. There are no reported or known cases of termites damaging straw bale walls,

Product description

Product description

Figure 15.26 Electrical installa-

J

tion. (R-Control Building

j although in one case they traveled through the bales to get to wood window frames.7

The first stationary, horse-powered baler was built in 1872, fol­lowed by steam-powered balers in 1884. These two inventions, especially the horse-powered baler, contributed to the growth of straw bale construction. In the late 1800s, the northwestern Nebraska sandhills were a vast grassland area with limited trees. A shortage of lumber, and little or no access to rail transportation, meant that settlers had to turn to indigenous materials for protec­tion from the elements. The Kincaid Act of 1904 provided new homesteading rules that further helped populate this semiarid region of grass-stabilized sand dunes.

Although claims have been made for the construction of a hay bale home near Lincoln, Nebraska, in 1889, the oldest structure for

which there is satisfactory documentation is a one-room school – house built near Minitare (then Tabor), Nebraska, in 1896 or 1897.8

Plastered straw bale houses, farm buildings, churches, schools, offices, and grocery stores were developed throughout the region. The straw bales, about 3 to 4 ft long and 1V2 to 2 ft square, were stacked like bricks, one bale deep, with the joints staggered. Some houses used mortar between the bales, whereas others simply rest­ed one bale directly on the other. Four to five wooden or iron rods were driven down through the bales to hold the wall firmly togeth­er. The roof plate, typically supporting a simple hipped roof, was fas­tened to the top bales of the wall with rods or stakes. Window and door frames were set as the walls rose around them. Numerous examples of these historic structures still exist, many over 100 years old. These artifacts serve as excellent examples of the dura­bility, simplicity of construction, and environmental sensibility that have contributed to the growing popularity of straw bale construc­tion in the twenty-first century (Figs. 15.27 through 15.29).

Product description

Bales are available with two or three wires holding them together. Two-wire bales weigh about 50 lb and are usually 14" high, 18"

Product description

Product description

Figure 15.28 Two-story Escalon house under construction. (Daniel Smith & Associates Architects)

Product description

wide, and 32 to 40" long. Three-wire bales weigh 75 to 100 lb and measure are 16 to 17" high, 23 to 24" wide, and 42 to 47" long. The length of bales can be easily changed, but because of the shoot of the baler, the height and width are fixed.

Good building bales should be dry and well compacted with no discoloration from rot or mold. The weight of dry bales (moisture content below 20 percent) is 7 to 9 lb/ft3. A building-quality bale should be dense enough that it will not deform when two people stand on it. The strings should be tight enough so that when the bale is lifted by the strings, you can fit no more than one finger under the string. Half bales and whole bales are needed so that the bales can be staggered when stacked.

Climatically, the range of building sites includes semiarid loca­tions such as southern Sonora, Mexico, rainy and humid sites in Alabama, and wintry regions such as northern Alberta, Canada, or the coast of Maine. Straw bale buildings also have been built in other parts of the world such as Australia, Canada, Chile, England, Finland, France, Ireland, Mongolia, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, Scotland, and Wales. The building sizes and types are quite varied. Examples include a 10′ X 12′ storage shed (built by a fifth grade class with rice straw bales), an art gallery, a 40′ X 80′ grocery store, elegant homes, and a 26,000-ft2 hog barn with a straw-insulated roof.9

Straw bale construction guidelines have been created for use as a prescriptive code for load-bearing straw bale structures, but adoption has been limited. The international building codes cur­rently being adopted as this book goes to print do not include spe­cific regulations for straw bale construction. The reference to alternative materials and methods in Chap. 1 requires local build­ing officials to provide approval and permitting for this type of con­struction. Straw bale codes have already been adopted in parts of Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Oregon, as well as in Austin, Texas, and Boulder, Colorado.

As mentioned earlier, there are few termites that like straw. The only reported cases of termite damage occurred when the termites traveled through the straw to the wood window and door frames. The straw was left untouched. Termite prevention measures, such as termite shields, borate, or other barrier methods, should still be implemented as in conventional housing.10

Long-term or repeated exposure to moisture is perhaps the great­est danger that straw bale walls face. Given enough liquid mois­ture and 2 to 3 weeks, the fungi that are always present in bales produce enzymes that break down straw cellulose. Fortunately, straw moisture content must be above 20 percent (by weight) to support fungal growth. Some codes require a maximum moisture content of 14 percent. Moisture testing in plastered straw bale walls suggests that maintaining the breathability of straw bale walls may be the best insurance against rot. Historical data for unwrapped bale walls demonstrate the importance of maximum breathability; a mansion in Huntsville, Alabama, has successfully endured southern humidity since 1938; a 1978 building near Rockport, Washington, receives up to 75 in of rain a year; and an unplastered building near Tonasket, Washington, with no founda­tion and unplastered walls shows no apparent deterioration of the bales since 1984. Straw bale wall moisture monitoring is underway in climates as diverse as Portland, Oregon, Alberta, Canada, and Nova Scotia, Canada. Tests to date show rot problems only in areas with leaks or direct bale-concrete foundation or bale-soil contact.

R-value

Much of the published information on the energy performance of straw bale buildings is based on measurements done in 1993 by Joseph McCabe at the University of Arizona as part of his mas­ter’s thesis. McCabe’s findings show that straw bale construction assemblies have an insulating value of R-54.8 for a 23.5M-wide, three-string bale laid flat. The same bale laid on edge has an R – value of R-49.5. For two-string bales laid flat, the R-value is R – 42.8. When laid on edge, the R-value is R-32.1.10 McCabe concluded that the insulating value is 2.68 per inch (0.054 W/m*°C) when heat flow is perpendicular to the orientation of the straw (bales stacked on edge) and 2.38 per inch (0.061 W/m*°C) when the heat flow is parallel to the straw orientation (with the grain). Subsequent studies have been performed with varying results depending on the testing method. In the most recent test, on May 15, 1998, researchers at ORNL completed a second test in their guarded-hot-box chamber. Bales were 19" (480 mm) wide and stacked flat. After being plastered on both sides, the wall was allowed to dry for almost 2 months (to 13 percent moisture con­tent). The test chamber was operated with one side at 70°F (21°C) and the other at 0°F ( —18°C), and 2 weeks were provided for the wall to reach steady-state heat flow conditions. Measurements then showed the wall to insulate to R-27.5 (RSI-4.8). On a per – thickness basis, this is 1.45 per inch (0.099 W/m*°C), just over half the value most commonly reported.11

In a paper presented in 1998, researchers Tav Commins and Nehemiah Stone suggest that this is the most accurate measure of the R-value of straw bale walls to date. Achieving a wall R-value of R-28 (RSI-4.9) for a straw bale building is significant, but is dras­tically lower than the R-50 to R-60 (RSI-8.8 to RSI-10.6) figures that have been suggested in the past. The wide variation in tested R-values that may result from gaps or moisture intrusion also indi­cates how important proper installation is with straw bale con­struction.11 It is anticipated that additional testing will continue to ascertain a consistent R-value per inch quantity.

Straw bale selection

The success of a straw bale construction project may start with the quality of the basic unit of material to be used. Judy Knox, of Out on Bale, (un)Ltd., provides the following guidelines for selecting bales:

1. Purchase bales following the harvest when they are usually inexpensive and abundant. Make sure the bales are stored high and dry.

2. Obtain the bales from feed stores and other retail outlets, whole­sale brokers, or directly from the farmer. Retail outlets are the easiest and most expensive sources. Wholesale brokers offer direct access to the bale supplier and often offer commercial transportation. Dealing directly with farmers may give you more say about bale quality and consistency, but you will likely have to address bale transportation.

3. Do not rely on hearsay concerning the size and condition of any bales you may buy. Check out the bales yourself.

4. Bales must be tightly tied with durable material, preferably polypropylene string or baling wire. Avoid bales tied with tradi­tional natural fiber baling twine. When you lift the bale, it should not twist or sag.

5. Make sure the bales are uniformly well compacted.

6. Look for thick, long-stemmed straw that is mostly free of seed heads. Wheat, oats, rye, barley, rice, and flax are all good.

7. Test most bales to make sure that they have always been dry. Bale moisture content should be 14 percent or less.

8. An ideal bale size proportion is twice as long as it is wide. This simplifies maintaining a running bond in courses.

9. Try to get bales of equal size and length. If they do vary in length (as many will), lay 10 bales end-to-end. Measure this entire length. Then divide by 10. This is the average bale length to use for planning.12

Installation/details

The three basic ways to build walls with straw bales are known as Nebraska style, in-fill, and mortar bale. (A fourth style, known as straw-clay building, has been used historically in Europe.) Straw bales can be laid flat or laid on edge. Laid flat refers to stacking bales so that the sides with the largest cross-sectional area are hor­izontal and the longest dimension of this area is parallel with the wall plane. This would be analogous to a typical brick stretcher course laid in a running bond. Laid on edge refers to stacking bales so that the sides with the largest cross-sectional area are vertical and the longest dimension of this area is horizontal and parallel with the wall plane. This method is similar to a brick shiner course laid in a running bond.

Generally speaking, bale walls are commonly wrapped with stuc­co netting and plastered with mud, lime-sand, or cement plaster. In many cases the netting has been found to be unnecessary, and plas­ter is applied directly to the bales.

State building codes or construction guidelines, if applicable, should be consulted. The following text is to be used as a general guide to installation only.

Nebraska style. The oldest method of straw bale construction, Nebraska style, is also referred to as structural bale or load-bearing construction. The reference to Nebraska is an homage to straw bale’s historic ancestry in buildings that originated on the Great Plains. Before 1936, all straw bale structures were built in this style.10

In Nebraska style construction, automatic straw balers create tight building blocks that are stacked up to one and one-half sto­ries. The bales are typically stuccoed on the exterior and plastered on the interior to provide protection from the elements and an attractive finish. The stucco and plaster also add to the structural integrity of the wall system. This method is gaining in popularity because of its simplicity and economy of material use12 (Fig. 15.30).

The simplest of load-bearing straw bale structures are square or rectangular buildings with hip roofs to distribute the roof load as equally as possible on all the walls. Buildings are usually limited to one story, and a relatively small number of windows and doors

Product description

Figure 15.30 Stucco application. {Harvest Built Homes)

are distributed fairly evenly around the building to prevent differ­ential settling of walls.

In a typical load-bearing design, bales are stacked on a poured concrete stem wall that extends about 6" above the floor slab. A moisture barrier or capillary break (such as gravel) should be placed between the foundation and the first course of straw bales. The barrier should run vertically between the perimeter insulation and the foundation wall and should run horizontally under the straw bale and then double back to the outside edge of the founda­tion (Fig. 15.31).

Product description

Many builders prefer three-wire bales because they are wider than two-wire bales, thereby making the walls more stable. Bales are usually stacked in a running bond fashion and fastened to each other by driving pins, usually of wood, metal, or bamboo, down through multiple courses of bales as the walls are built. Stacking using a running bond produces a wall that is stronger and more stable. Wooden frames are installed for windows and doors as the layers of bales are installed. Lintels also can be used to transfer the loads to the bale walls on either side of an opening (Fig. 15.32).

Roof construction for bale buildings is virtually the same as for conventional construction. Bale walls usually are capped with a wooden, plywood, or concrete roof-bearing top plate. Also called a roof plate, this assembly serves as a structural element at the top of the wall to bear and distribute the weight of the roof, to give the top of the wall additional lateral strength, and to provide a way to securely attach the roof structure to the walls (Fig. 15.33).

Roof plates typically consist of a horizontal material that is as wide, or nearly as wide, as the bale width of the wall below. Attached to this is a vertical piece or pieces that provide strength against bowing down in the middle. One common method for 23м – wide, three-string bales uses a 24M-wide plywood sheet as the hori-

Product description

Figure 15.33 Conventional roof. (Harvest Built Homes)

zontal piece and two 2 X 6s or 2 X 8s stood on edge and nailed along the long edges of the plywood sheet. Another method, termed a ladder-type roof plate, uses lengths of 2 X 6 or 2 X 8 lumber con­nected by short cross-pieces of the same lumber.

The hip roof is probably most suitable for larger load-bearing bale buildings because it offers the advantages of allowing all the exterior walls to be built to the same height and the roof load to be distributed to all four walls. To protect the bales from moisture, substantial overhangs are preferred in high-rainfall climates.

Continuous structural connections between the foundation and roof structure are necessary to resist the uplift and lateral forces caused by high winds and (in some regions) seismic activity. Various systems have been developed, including anchor bolts and threaded rods, cables, heavy wires, and straps (Fig. 15.34).

Full-height threaded rods every 6 ft is a simple but laborious method. Sections of threaded rod usually extend from the concrete stem wall to the top of the wall, and bales are installed over them. These threaded rods are bolted through the roof plate and tight­ened down after the roof is installed.

The traditional approach to wall compression is to put the roof on and wait at least 6 weeks for the weight of the roof to compress the

Product description

Figure 15.34 Roof detail. (.Daniel Smith & Associates, Architects)

bales prior to plastering. Posttensioning, also referred to as pre­compressing, can compress the walls for increased structural stabil­ity, reduced long-term settling, and faster construction (Fig. 15.35).

In an effort to avoid the traditional method of “impaling” the bales over the full-height threaded rods, other systems have been devised. For example, а 2" X 2" steel mesh is nailed at the bottom of the wall to a wooden wall plate that is bolted to the concrete foundation. The mesh is also nailed to the roof plate at the top of the wall. A backhoe can be used to apply a force to the roof plate to compress the wall before the mesh is nailed in place.

Another method of posttensioning embeds eyebolts in the foun­dation on either side of the wall. A V2" flat poly strap is threaded through the eyebolts, over the top of the roof plate, and back down to the eyebolt on the other side of the wall. The poly strap method uses small metal buckles, which allows tension to be placed on the strapping, with the overall advantages of minimal tool needs and maximum speed and ease.

In-fill. The in-fill or nonstructural bale system can be used for the construction of large structures, taller-wall heights, or where extensive diagonal bracing may be required. A vertical load-bearing

Product description

Figure 15.35 Straw-bale roof. (.Daniel Smith & Associates, Architects)

structural frame is employed with the straw bale wall. Also called the post and beam style, this approach can accommodate structur­al systems such as concrete block, concrete, short 2 X 4 fin walls, or wood I-beams. The roof plate is actually a concrete tie beam, an engineered wood beam, or a box beam. The straw bale walls have only their own weight to support. The bales are attached to each other by piercing the bales with rebar, stakes of wood, or bamboo and attaching the bales to the pole or column.

Using straw bales as in-fill walls in post-and-beam offers several advantages. Less reinforcement of the bale walls is needed because the structural system carries the roof load. In the event the straw bales help support the posts, smaller framing members can be used than is common with timber frame construction. The roof also can be finished before erecting bale walls, keeping rain off the straw bales prior to stucco application. In-fill straw bale designs also per­mit greater design flexibility. Irregular roof designs, multiple-story building heights, complex floor plans, and different amounts of glaz­ing on different orientations are possible with this system. The dis­advantages include the need for more framing material, the lack of continuity in the bale fabric, and typically a diminished “bale char­acter” in the wall edges and alignment12 (Figs. 15.36 and 15.37).

Product description

Figure 15.36 Berkeley cottage under construction. (.Daniel Smith & Associates, Architects)

Product description

Figure 15.37 Berkeley cottage after stucco. (.Daniel Smith & Associates, Architects)

As summarized by Daniel Smith & Associates, Architects, there are several other systems approaches to the post and beam style. These include

1. Post and beam with continuous bale wall alongside. An exposed heavy timber frame with the bale wall running alongside.

2. Bale wall with light notched-in posts. A light post and beam frame notched into a continuous bale wall, so that the frame is not exposed. As straw bales are stacked, they are notched around the wooden frame, where they provide lateral bracing— corner bracing may not be required. (Steel frames and masonry – block or poured-concrete columns also can be used.)

3. Bale wall wrapped around an existing shell. The bales are typ­ically wrapped outside the existing skin of the building and then tied to it. This is a common approach to insulating an existing house, barn, or steel industrial building.

Mortar bale. The mortar bale system uses structural mortar, made of portland cement and sand, that is applied between the straw bales. Bales are stuccoed on the exterior and plastered on the inte­rior to protect them and provide an attractive finish. The mortared joints, stucco, and plaster also add to the structural integrity of the wall system. This system’s thermal performance is not as efficient because of conductivity through the mortar joints. This method was developed in Canada in the 1980s and is compliant with Canadian building codes.12

Structural considerations and guidelines

Although code requirements will vary, the following is a draft pre­scriptive standard for load-bearing and non-load-bearing straw bale construction that has been developed by David Eisenberg of the Development Center for Appropriate Technology with input from Matts Myhrman:

■ Minimum wall thickness: 13" (330 mm).

■ Minimum density of straw bales: 7.5 lb/ft3 (120 kg/m3).

■ Maximum wall height: One story with unloaded bale portion of wall not to exceed 5.6 times the wall thickness.

■ Maximum unsupported wall length: 15.7 times the wall thickness.

■ Allowable load on bale walls: 550 lb/ft2 (2684 kg/m2).

■ Minimum height of foundation (stem) wall: 6" (150 mm) above grade.

■ Structural anchoring to foundation: Minimum V2" (13-mm) diam­eter steel anchor bolts at intervals of 6 ft (1.8 m) minimum con­nected to threaded rod to tie down top plate.

■ Moisture barrier: One of several barrier materials between top of foundation and bottom of bale wall to block capillary moisture migration.

■ For load-bearing walls, bales must be stacked flat with bales overlapping in successive courses; various options for pinning bales are acceptable. For nonstructural walls, bales may be stacked on edge.

■ Roof plate: Two double 2 X 6 (or larger) horizontal top plates located at inner and outer bale edges with cross-bracing.

■ Wall openings for windows and doors: Minimum of one full bale from an outside corner and framed to carry roof load (several options possible).

■ Plaster/stucco: Cement stucco reinforced with woven wire stucco netting or equivalent, secured through the wall.13

Limitations

Moisture is probably the greatest threat to the success of any straw bale construction project. Straw is inherently resistant to rot and is resistant to but a very few organisms that are actually able to decompose straw. High moisture levels in straw bales can provide a habitat for fungi and lead to decomposition. In fact, fungus can occur in straw at humidity levels of above 20 percent (percentage of dry weight). The New Mexico standards list 20 percent as the max­imum allowable moisture content, but some researchers believe that 14 percent is a more appropriate quantity.10 Bulk moisture must be kept away from walls by using wide overhangs, sloping the ground away from the building, and installing a good capillary break between the foundation and the bale walls.13 For obvious rea­sons, straw bales should not be used below grade. The foundation should be constructed so that the bottom of the lowest course of straw bales is at least 6" above final exterior grade.

There are no historical precedents for bales being used with moisture barriers, and consequently, there are no data on how the two perform together. Most historical data for unwrapped bale walls demonstrate the importance of maximum breathability of bale walls. The almost universal practice among straw bale builders, whether in California, Arizona, Washington, or Nova Scotia, is to avoid the use of sheet moisture barriers or imperme­able stuccoes over the bales. Experience with straw bale structures in a variety of climates indicates that these barriers are not neces­sary and may even be detrimental.14

A mansion in Huntsville, Alabama, has successfully endured southern humidity since 1938; a 1978 building near Rockport, Washington, receives up to 75 in of rain a year; and an unplastered building near Tonasket, Washington, with no foundation and unplastered walls has shown no apparent deterioration of the bales since 1984. Of the hundreds of bale buildings standing in the Southwest, none has used a paper moisture barrier. Recent bale structures in northern New York (humid winters) and Nova Scotia (cold humid winters) have been monitored and demonstrate good performance in these difficult climates.14

The introduction of a sheet moisture barrier, even a breathable product, inhibits the natural transpiration of the bales and may even create a surface that would concentrate moisture within the wall. Although air retarder products transmit vapor, they block liquid moisture. Consequently, vapor traveling from the building interior condensed inside the bale wall would be unable to leave the wall except as vapor and could collect at the membrane and cause rot. The straw/stucco membrane, which allows both vapor migra­tion and transpiration of liquid, can allow such moisture to wick out to the exterior more readily.14

Canadian studies suggest that alkaline stuccoes, whether lime-rich or cement-rich, do not attack the straw at the interface and indeed appear to preserve it. One drawback is that the cement-rich stuccoes may be too impermeable to water vapor. This lack of breathability may not be conducive for use as exterior skins in cold areas. In con­trast, the study continues, the lime-rich stuccoes may be too perme­able to liquid water for the driving rain in other regions.15

Environmental considerations

Straw is an annually renewable crop, available wherever grain crops are grown. It is indeed a waste product, much of which is cur­rently burned in the field. The slow rate at which straw deterio­rates creates disposal problems for farmers. Unlike nitrogen-rich hay, straw cannot be used for livestock feed.10

Fire resistance

Although loose straw is easy to burn, baled straw chars and smol­ders and does not easily support a flame. Unlike stud construction, in which a series of “chimneys” (stud cavities) form the wall, bales are difficult to burn. The straw in bales is densely packed, which inhibits the oxygen flow necessary to fuel combustion. Straw bales, like heavy timbers, will char on the outside, thereby creating an insulating layer that further inhibits combustion. There have been some examples where the walls have been difficult to extinguish, since embers tend to slowly tunnel through the bales. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard E119, “Small Scale Fire Tests,” has even given straw bale con­struction a 2-hour fire rating.7

The tests administered by the National Research Council of Canada indicate that when jacketed by stucco and plaster, bales are even more resistant to fire. The plaster surface of the test sam­ple withstood temperatures of up to 1850° F before a small crack developed.10 The plastered bales hold enough air to provide good insulation but are firmly compacted and do not hold enough air to allow combustion.

Bales laid on edge leave the strings exposed unless covered with plaster or stucco. If the strings are burned, the bale will fall apart and subsequently combust. When the bales are also wrapped with wire lath, the potential danger of burned and busted baling twine is, of course, greatly reduced. Bales that potentially could be exposed to extreme heat or flame, whether in walls or roofs, must be encased in plaster or gypsum board.

Availability

Whether a straw bale building system can achieve the popularity necessary to be considered a conventional building system is not known at this time. The Straw Bale Construction Association is a fledgling trade association of straw bale builders and architects that has members in 22 states, indicating some level of interest among professionals. Availability and shipping costs may be the biggest deterrent to competitive use of straw bale construction. At present, straw bales range in price from $1.70 (material and deliv­ery) in Alberta, Canada, up to $3.50 in parts of Arizona and British Columbia. Research indicates that straw bale residences can range in cost from $10 to $100 per square foot depending on level of fin­ishes, complexity of plan, and amount of owner-provided labor.

Appendix

AFM Corporation P. O. Box 246 24000 W. Highway 7 Excelsior, MN 55331 800-255-0176

R-Control Insulated Concrete Form and R-Control Building Systems

952-474-0809

Fax: 952-474-2074

American Polysteel Forms 5150-F Edith NE Albuquerque, NM 87101 800-9PS-FORM Fax: 505-345-8154

FischerSIPS Incorporated 1843 Northwestern Parkway Louisville, KY 40203 502-778-5577 800-792-7477

http://www. fischersips. com

Structural Insulated Panel Association 3413 A 56th Street NW Gig Harbor, WA 98335 253-858-SIPA (7472)

Fax: 253-858-0272 Email: staff@sips. org http:/ /www. sips. org/

Tav Commins

California Energy Commission 1516 9th Street Sacramento, CA 95814-5504 916-654-4989 Fax: 916-654-4420 http:/ /www. energy. ca. gov

Harvest Built Homes

Nancy Richardson, Executive Director

93 California Street

Ashland OR 97520

541-482-8733

www. harvesthomes. org

A 501(c)(3) nonprofit corporation promoting affordable straw bale home own­ership for low-income families

Jeff Christian

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Bldg. 3147

PO. Box 2008

Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6070

423-574-5207

Fax: 423-574-9338

Daniel Smith & Associates, Architects

1107 Virginia Street

Berkeley, CA 94702

510-526-1935

Fax: 510-526-1961

E-mail: info@dsaarch. com

http:/ /www. dsaarch. com/

David Eisenberg

Director, Development Center for Appropriate Technology (DCAT)

PO. Box 41144 Tucson, Arizona 85717 520-624-6628 Fax: 520-798-3701 str awnet@aol. com

The Last Straw HC 66, Box 119 Hillsboro, NM 88042 505-895-5400

Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology (CREST)

777 N. Capitol St. NW

Ste. 805, Washington, DC 20002

202-289-5365

E-mail: info@crest. org

http: / / solstice, crest, org /

References

1. Structural Insulated Panel Association Web site: http: 11www. sips. org/html /frame_news. html.

2. “Agriboard Insulated Straw Panels,” Energy Source Builder No. 49, February 1997.

3. “Foam Core Panels,” Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U. S. Department of Energy. Available at http://www. eren. doe. gov/consumer info / refbriefs / bdl. html.

4. “How Do SIPs Really React in a Fire?” Available at http://sips. org/html/ techops. html.

5. “SIPs Outperform Stick and Batt.” Available at http: //sips. org/html / oakridge. html.

6. “Do SIPs Contain Formaldehyde?” Available at http: //sips. org/html / techops. html.

7. David Eisenberg, “Straw Bale Construction,” Engineering Australia Magazine, 1997. Available at http:/ / www. azstarnet. com/ ~dcat/Aust. htm.

8. Matts Myhrman and Judy Knox, “A Brief History of Hay and Straw as Building Materials,” The Last Straw 1(4), 1993.

9. Joseph C. McCabe, “The Thermal Resistivity of Straw Bales for Construction.” Available at http:/ /solstice. crest. org/efficiency/straw_insulation/straw_insul. html.

10. Athena Swentzell Steen, Bill Steen, and David Bainbridge, The Straw Bale House (White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 1994).

11. “R-Value of Straw Bales Lower than Previously Reported,” EBN 7(9), 1998. Available at http://www. ebuild. com/Archives/Other_Copy /r-value. html.

12. “Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,” U. S. Department of Energy, April 1995. Available at http://www. eren. doe. gov/EE/strawhouse/.

13. Alex Wilson, “Straw: The Next Great Building Material?” EBN 4(3), 1995. Available at http:/ /www. greenbuildings. com/Archives/Features/Straw/ Straw. html.

14. John Swearingen. Available at http:/ /www. snowcrest. net/smb/moisture. htm.

15. Bob Platts, “Pilot Study of Moisture Control in Stuccoed Straw Bale Walls,” Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation Report, Ottawa, May 31, 1997.

Chapter

16

Historical Insulation Products

Asbestos

Asbestos is a fibrous mineral found in rocks and soil throughout the world that has been used in more than 3000 different con­struction materials and manufactured products. Asbestos has been used in architectural and construction applications because it is strong, durable, fire retardant, and an efficient insulator. Alone or in combination with other materials, asbestos can be fashioned into a variety of products that have numerous applications within the building industry, such as flooring, walls, ceiling tiles, decorative spray-on ceiling treatments, exterior housing shingles, insulation or fire retardant for heating and electrical systems, etc.

Chrysotile, or white asbestos, is the most widely used mineral in the asbestos family and makes up approximately 95 percent of the world’s asbestos supply, three-quarters of which is mined in Quebec, Canada. Prices can range from $200 to $1300 a metric ton, depending on the quality. (The longer the fiber, the more valuable it is.1) Amosite, known as brown asbestos, and crocidolite, known as blue asbestos, each account for less than 5 percent of all asbestos in buildings. The remaining three kinds of asbestos, anthophyllite, tremolite, and actinolite, are rare. In addition to the strip mines in Canada, mining operations continue in Russia, China, Zimbabwe, Brazil, and King City, California.

All types of asbestos are chemically inert, noncombustible, and tend to break into very tiny fibers. These individual fibers are so

small that many must be identified using a microscope. In fact, some individual fibers may be up to 700 times smaller than a human hair. Because asbestos fibers are so small, once released into the air, they may stay suspended there for hours or even days.

History

The first recorded use of asbestos was in Finland about 2500 B. c., where the material was used in the mud wattle for the wooden huts the people lived in as well as strengthening for pottery. Adverse health aspects of the mineral were noted nearly 2000 years ago when Pliny the Younger wrote about the poor health of slaves in the asbestos mines. Benjamin Franklin even carried a fireproof purse made from asbestos.1 Although known to be injurious for centuries, the first modern references to its toxicity were by the British Labor Inspectorate when it banned asbestos dust from the workplace in 1898. Asbestosis cases were described in the literature after the turn of the century. Cancer was first suspected in the mid-1980s, and a causal link to mesothelioma was made in 1965. Because of the public concern for worker and public safety with the use of this material, several different types of analyses were applied to the determination of asbestos content.2

The first commercial asbestos mine, a chrysotile mine, was opened in Quebec, Canada, in the 1870s. Amosite asbestos and crocidolite asbestos were mined from Africa beginning in 1916 and 1980, respec­tively. Asbestos was first used in the United States in the early 1900s to insulate steam engines. While its fire-retardent and durability properties soon prompted this material’s inclusion into a variety of household and construction products, the manufacturers of asbestos products were aware of the deadly dangers and health hazards by the 1930s. Workers in asbestos factories, including men, women, and children, were developing asbestos lung disease as soon as 5 or 6 years after first exposure to asbestos. By the early 1940s, medical and scientific articles were being published showing the connection between asbestos and the development of lung cancer. By the 1950s, the connection between asbestos and mesothelioma had been made, and by 1960, it was established that persons exposed to asbestos were developing mesothelioma at an alarming rate. Secret internal com­pany documents reveal that the asbestos companies intentionally hid what they knew about the dangers and health hazards of asbestos so that workers and customers would not object to using asbestos prod­ucts. In 1973, the United States used 795,000 metric tons of asbestos in consumer products. Although some asbestos-containing materials were still being installed in buildings into the late 1980s, this num­ber had dropped to 21,700 metric tons by 1996, with predominant uses in water pipes, brake linings, and roof coatings.3

Asbestos products

Asbestos is found in thousands of products, including many build­ing materials. Asbestos is most commonly found in commercial applications as sprayed-on insulation, pipe and boiler insulation, and duct insulation. In residential dwellings, it can be found in roofing and siding shingles made with asbestos cement, vinyl floor tiles and adhesives, wall and ceiling acoustical tiles, sprayed “pop­corn” coatings on ceilings and walls, insulation in attics and walls, and insulation blankets on furnace ducts and hot water and steam pipes, as well as boiler door gaskets on furnaces and wood stoves.

Products containing asbestos can be very difficult, if not impossi­ble, to visually identify unassisted. There are some general descrip­tions one can go by. For example, sprayed-on asbestos insulation is usually a fluffy material sprayed onto ceilings or beams and some­times covered by ceiling tiles. Asbestos pipe and boiler insulation may be covered with paper, cloth, or metal. The actual insulation can be a cardboard-like pipe wrap or cement on pipe elbows. Asbestos duct insulation is usually a thin layer of insulation that may be painted or covered with paper, cloth, or metal. Asbestos ceil­ing tiles, used for sound insulation or dropped ceilings, are very similar to nonasbestos tiles.

There is not a standardized assessment of asbestos use based on chronology either. For example, cement-asbestos board siding, a very dense, brittle product, was used primarily in the 1940s, 1950s, and into the 1960s. From the mid-1960s through the early 1980s, some spray-on “popcorn” ceiling treatments contained asbestos (asbestos used in this product was banned in 1977). The product most appropriate to the scope of this book, thermal insulation in attics and walls, was used primarily in homes built between 1930 and 1950. The amount of asbestos used in construction products varied as well. Asbestos insulation used between 1910 and the ear­ly 1970s may contain up to 74 percent or more asbestos by weight.

Asbestos thermal insulation

Although not as common as many other asbestos-containing mate­rials (ACMs), loose blown-in and batt insulations infrequently have been known to contain asbestos. These were used primarily as thermal insulation in homes built or remodeled between 1930 and 1950. Although the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has stated that many homes constructed in the United States dur­ing the past 20 years probably do not contain asbestos products, new discoveries have demonstrated that this may be inaccurate. As recently as February 2000, new disclosures revealed that there may be other thermal insulation products that were on the market as recently as the early 1980s that contained asbestos.

For example, W. R. Grace Company was hit with three class – action lawsuits, one filed in Boston on behalf of homeowners nationwide who have asbestos-tainted Zonolite attic insulation in their homes and the other two in Montana, where the company operated a mine and mill. The lawsuit, filed in U. S. District Court in Boston by Edward M. Lindholm, accuses W. R. Grace Company of fraud, deception, and enriching itself at the expense of home – owners by failing to warn the public that the Zonolite insulation it sold from 1963 through 1984 contained tremolite asbestos. Grace’s Cambridge-based Construction Products Division oversaw its attic insulation line.4 In 1984, the EPA estimated that this attic insula­tion had been installed in 940,000 homes.5 Grace, which discontin­ued its attic insulation in 1984, knew as far back as 1963 about the asbestos but feared that disclosure would hurt sales, according to memos from high-ranking Grace officials.4

This asbestos presents a hazard only if renovation and repair work disturbs it. If asbestos-containing materials are discovered, be sure certified and/or qualified contractors/workers are consulted and hired so that asbestos fibers are not spread further throughout the home.

Identification

As mentioned earlier, asbestos fibers were added to a variety of products to increase durability, insulation properties, and fire resistance. There are several types of asbestos fibers that may be found in a home, and typically an ACM cannot be recognized sim­ply by looking at it, unless it is labeled. Until a product is tested it is best to assume that the product contains asbestos, unless the label or the manufacturer verifies that it does not. If there is a pos­sibility that the house contains asbestos, the only sure way to tell is to take a sample from the specific area in question and have it tested by an EPA-approved laboratory.

Unlike thermal insulation, pipe insulation typically is easier to identify. Asbestos pipe insulation looks white and chalky and is wrapped in a thin canvas. Another type looks like corrugated paper wrapped with tape or paper that has been cut to fit around the pipes or furnace ducts.

Removal

Asbestos removal has been called the biggest environmental cleanup project in the United States. It has cost over $50 billion over the past 20 years.3 If the asbestos is in good condition, it is best not to remove it. If the material is friable, it could be a health haz­ard, and other steps needs to be taken. (The means test for friabil­ity suggests that when the material is dry, it may be crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by hand pressure, flakes off, or is deteriorating.) Similarly, if the material has been sanded, cut, or sawed, it is also a hazard and needs to be removed or immobilized.

Although the reaction to the health hazards of asbestos workers initially accelerated public concerns, the EPA also has slowly changed its position. For example, in 1979 the EPA stated that the only permanent solution to asbestos in buildings was to take it out. In 1983, the EPA said “removal was always appropriate, never inappropriate.” In 1985, the EPA issued an updated statement in the “Purple Book” that emphasized managing asbestos rather than removing it. The issue of asbestos removal was further downplayed in 1990. The EPAs “Green Book” noted that improper asbestos removal could increase exposure by stirring up dust unnecessarily.3

The EPA currently requires asbestos removal only to prevent sig­nificant public exposure to asbestos, such as during building reno­vation or demolition. In fact, an improper removal can create a dangerous situation where none existed previously. EPA does rec­ommend in-place management whenever asbestos is discovered. Instead of removal, a conscientious in-place management program usually will control fiber releases, particularly when the materials are not significantly damaged and are not likely to be disturbed.

The EPA has produced many guidance documents on asbestos in buildings. Some of the most pertinent are

1. “Guidance for Controlling Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings (Purple Book),” EPA 560/5-85-024.

2. “A Guide to Respiratory Protection for the Asbestos Abatement Industry (White Book),” EPA-560-OPTS-86-001.

3. “Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner’s Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials (Green Book),” ЕРА 20T-2003.

4. Asbestos Abatement and Management in Buildings: Model Guide Specifications, 2d ed., August 1988. New sections on asbestos-containing resilient flooring and a new introduction and instructions-for-use section were published in early 1992.6

EPA also maintains an asbestos information “hot line” and publi­cations ordering number: 202-554-1404. For school-related asbestos information, call 800-835-6700. Information is also avail­able from the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS), Washington, D. C.: 202-289-7800.

Home inspection. If immediate identification of the material is not possible, one alternative is to hire a house inspector specifically trained in handling asbestos material. The house inspector should have an identification card that has been dated within the last year. The cost is typically $100 plus the laboratory fee.

A professional asbestos inspector also may be available depend­ing on the locale. The homeowner should review several items prior to the hire. First of all, make sure that the inspection will include a complete visual examination and careful collection and laboratory analysis of samples. If asbestos is present, the inspector should provide a written evaluation describing its location and extent of damage and give recommendations for correction or pre­vention. The homeowner also should verify that the inspecting firm makes frequent site visits if it is hired to ensure that a contractor follows proper procedures and requirements. The inspector may recommend and perform checks after the correction to ensure that the area has been cleaned properly.

Asbestos contractor. If the asbestos product is in poor condition, it is highly recommended that the homeowner hire a state-certified asbestos contractor to minimize all health risks in removing or immobilizing it properly. Asbestos professionals can conduct an inspection, take samples of suspected material, assess their condi­tion, and advise about what corrections, if any, are needed and who is qualified to make these corrections. Asbestos abatement contrac­tors can be found in the Yellow Pages or at Web sites. The home – owner also should check with the local air pollution control board, the local agency responsible for worker safety, and the Better

Business Bureau. Ask if the firm has had any safety violations, and find out if there are legal actions filed against it. Each person per­forming such work should provide proof of training and licensing in asbestos work, such as completion of EPA-approved training. State and local health departments or EPA regional offices may have list­ings of licensed professionals in specific areas. The EPA also has published a summary guide in order to guarantee that homeown­ers are protected during any asbestos inspection or removal6 (see the Appendix at the end of this chapter for regional offices).

Before work begins, the homeowner should receive a written con­tract specifying the work plan, cleanup, and applicable federal, state, and local regulations that the contractor must follow (such as notification requirements and asbestos disposal procedures). The homeowner also should contact the state and local health depart­ments, the EPAs regional office, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHAs) regional office to find out what the regulations are. Be sure the contractor follows local asbestos removal and disposal laws. At the end of the job, the homeowner should get written assurance from the contractor that all proce­dures have been followed.

The homeowner needs to verify that the contractor avoids spreading or tracking asbestos dust into other areas of the home. The contractor should seal the work area from the rest of the house using plastic sheeting and duct tape, turn off the heating and air – conditioning system, and tape over all vents. For some repairs, such as pipe insulation removal, plastic glove bags may be ade­quate. They must be sealed with tape and properly disposed of when the job is complete.

The homeowner should verify that the contractor clearly marks the work site as a hazard area. Household members and pets will not be allowed into the area until work is completed. On comple­tion, the homeowner should make sure that the contractor cleans the area well with wet mops, wet rags, sponges, or HEPA (high-effi­ciency particulate air) vacuum cleaners. A regular vacuum cleaner must never be used. Wetting helps reduce the chance of spreading asbestos fibers in the air. All asbestos materials and disposable equipment and clothing used on the job must be placed in sealed, leakproof, and labeled plastic bags. The work site should be visual­ly free of dust and debris. Air monitoring (to make sure there is no increase in asbestos fibers in the air) may be necessary to ensure that the contractor’s job is done properly. This should be done by someone not associated with the contractor.6

Homeowner sampling. Although not recommended, a homeowner may want to do his or her own sampling in order to save a lot of money in consulting fees. The EPAhas presented a few guidelines:

1. Make sure no one else is in the room when sampling is done.

2. Wear disposable gloves or wash hands after sampling.

3. Shut down any heating or cooling systems to minimize the spread of any released fibers.

4. Do not disturb the material any more than is needed to take a small sample.

5. Place a plastic sheet on the floor below the area to be sampled.

6. Wet the material using a fine mist of water containing a few drops of detergent before taking the sample. The water-deter­gent mist will reduce the release of asbestos fibers.

7. Carefully cut a piece from the entire depth of the material using, for example, a small knife, corer, or other sharp object. Place the small piece into a clean container (e. g., a 35-mm film canister, small glass or plastic vial, or high-quality resealable plastic bag).

8. Tightly seal the container after the sample is in it.

9. Carefully dispose of the plastic sheet. Use a damp paper towel to clean up any material on the outside of the container or around the area sampled. Dispose of asbestos materials accord­ing to state and local procedures. (One should never vacuum loose asbestos because the vacuum cleaner will only distribute the very fine, virtually invisible fibers throughout the house, thus exposing the whole household to asbestos.)

10. Label the container with an identification number and clearly state when and where the sample was taken.

11. Patch the sampled area with the smallest possible piece of duct tape to prevent fiber release.6

The cost should be around $30 for the laboratory work. Send the sample to an EPA-approved laboratory for analysis. The National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) has a list of these laboratories (see the Appendix at the end of this chapter).

Health concerns

The Health Effects Institute, in an EPA-financed report ordered by Congress in 1991, conducted a comprehensive study on the risks of asbestos in buildings. The study revealed that the lifetime risk of cancer for someone who works in a building containing asbestos is 1 in 250,000. Ironically, outdoor air in urban areas causes a 1 in 25,000 lifetime risk of cancer.3

As mentioned earlier, intact and undisturbed asbestos materials generally do not pose a health risk. ACMs, however, can become haz­ardous by releasing fibers due to damage or deterioration over time. These fibers can be up to 1200 times thinner than a human hair. When inhaled, they become trapped and aggravate the lung tissues, which causes the tissues to scar. Because the material is durable, it persists over tissue and concentrates as repeated exposures occur over time. Unfortunately, medical researchers state that up to 30 years after inhalation, asbestos fibers can cause diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer, or mesothelioma. Disease generally occurs in workers and others who have experienced prolonged work-related exposure to asbestos; the health effects of lower exposures in the home are less certain. However, experts are unable to provide assur­ance that any level of exposure to asbestos fibers is completely safe.

Asbestosis. Asbestosis is a serious, chronic, noncancerous respira­tory disease. Symptoms of asbestosis include shortness of breath and a dry crackling sound in the lungs while inhaling. In its advanced stages, the disease may cause cardiac failure. The risk of asbestosis is minimal for those who do not work with asbestos; the disease is rarely caused by neighborhood or family exposures. Those who renovate or demolish buildings that contain asbestos may be at significant risk, depending on the nature of the exposure and the precautions taken. There is no effective treatment for asbestosis; the disease is usually disabling or fatal.

Lung cancer. Lung cancer causes the largest number of deaths related to asbestos exposure. Asbestos exposure is responsible for 4 to 7 percent of lung cancer cases in the United States.1 The most common symptoms of lung cancer are coughing and a change in breathing. Other symptoms include shortness of breath, persistent chest pains, hoarseness, and anemia. The incidence of lung cancer in people who are directly involved in the mining, milling, manu­facturing, and use of asbestos and its products is much higher than in the general population. Research indicates that people who have been exposed to asbestos and are also exposed to some other car­cinogen, such as cigarette smoke, have a significantly greater risk of developing lung cancer than people who have only been exposed to asbestos. One study found that asbestos workers who smoke are about 90 times more likely to develop lung cancer than people who neither smoke nor have been exposed to asbestos.

Mesothelioma. Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer that occurs most commonly in the thin membrane lining of the lungs, chest, abdomen, and sometimes the heart. About 200 cases are diagnosed each year in the United States. Virtually all cases of mesothelioma are linked with asbestos exposure. Approximately 2 percent of all miners and textile workers who work with asbestos and 10 percent of all workers who were involved in the manufacture of asbestos – containing gas masks contract mesothelioma.7

Evidence suggests that cancers in the esophagus, larynx, oral cavity, stomach, colon, and kidney may be caused by ingesting asbestos. For more information on asbestos-related cancers, con­tact the local chapter of the American Cancer Society.

Asbestos regulation

The EPA is responsible for developing and enforcing regulations necessary to protect the general public from exposure to airborne contaminants that are known to be hazardous to human health. Although most regulations refer to commercial projects and schools, the concerns for residential asbestos installations must not be overlooked. Primary federal asbestos regulations can be found in EPAs “Green Book.” Many are summarized in the following text; however, people involved in asbestos work should obtain and must follow all applicable federal and state regulations.

National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP), 40 CFR 61, Subpart M. The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1970 requires EPA to develop and enforce regulations to protect the general public from exposure to airborne contaminants that are known to be hazardous to human health. In accordance with Section 112 of the CAA, EPA established national emission standards for hazardous air pollu­tants (NESHAP). Asbestos was one of the first hazardous air pol­lutants regulated under Section 112. On March 31, 1971, EPA identified asbestos as a hazardous pollutant, and on April 6, 1973, EPA promulgated the asbestos NESHAP in 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart M. The asbestos NESHAP has been amended several times, most recently in November 1990.6

The asbestos NESHAP is intended to minimize the release of asbestos fibers during activities involving the handling of asbestos.

Accordingly, it specifies removal of asbestos and work practices to be followed prior to renovations and demolitions of buildings that contain a certain threshold amount of friable asbestos. Residential buildings having four or fewer dwelling units are generally exempt from the rules. Most often, the asbestos NESHAP requires action to be taken by the person who owns, leases, operates, controls, or supervises the facility being demolished or renovated (the "owner”) and by the person who owns, leases, operators, controls, or super­vises the demolition or renovation (the “operator”). The regulations require owners and operators subject to the asbestos NESHAP to notify delegated state and local agencies and/or their EPA regional offices before demolition or renovation activity begins. The regula­tions restrict the use of spray-on asbestos and prohibit the use of wet-applied and molded friable insulation (i. e., pipe lagging) that contains commercial asbestos. The asbestos NESHAP also regu­lates asbestos waste handling and disposal.6

Asbestos abatement projects, worker protection, final rule, 40 CFR 763, Subpart G. The EPAs worker protection rule extends the OSHA standards to state and local employees who perform asbestos work and who are not covered by the OSHA asbestos standards or by a state OSHA plan. The rule parallels OSHA requirements and covers medical examinations, air monitoring and reporting, protective equipment, work practices, and record keeping. In addition, many state and local agencies have more stringent standards than those required by the federal government. People who plan to renovate a structure that will result in disturbing a certain amount of asbestos or who plan to demolish any building are required to notify the appropriate federal, state, and local agencies and to follow all federal, state, and local requirements for the removal and disposal of regulated asbestos-containing material.6

TSCA. In 1979, under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), EPA began an asbestos technical assistance program for building owners, environmental groups, contractors, and industry. In May 1982, EPA issued the first regulation intended to control asbestos in schools under the authority of TSCA; this regulation was known as the asbestos-in-schools rule. Starting in 1985, loans and grants have been given each year to aid local education agencies (LEAs) in conducting asbestos abatement projects under the Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act (ASHAA).6

Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA), asbestos-containing materials in schools, final rule and notice, 40 CFR 763, Subpart E. In

1986, the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) was signed into law as Title II of TSCA. AHERA is more inclusive than the May 1982 asbestos-in-schools rule. AHERA requires LEAs to inspect their schools for asbestos-containing building materials and prepare management plans that recommend the best way to reduce the asbestos hazard. Options include repairing damaged ACM, spraying it with sealants, enclosing it, removing it, or keep­ing it in good condition so that it does not release fibers. The plans must be developed by accredited management planners and approved by the state. LEAs must notify parent, teacher, and employer organizations of the plans, and then the plans must be implemented. AHERA also requires accreditation of abatement designers, contractor supervisors and workers, building inspectors, and school management plan writers. Those responsible for enforc­ing AHERA have concentrated on educating LEAs in an effort to ensure that they comply with the regulations. Contractors who improperly remove asbestos from schools can be liable under both AHERA and NESHAP.6

Asbestos ban and phaseout rule. In 1989, EPA published the “Asbestos: Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce Prohibitions: Final Rule” (40 CFR Part 763, Subpart I). The rule eventually would have banned about 94 percent of the asbestos used in the United States (based on 1985 estimates). However, in 1991, the U. S. Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit, vacated and remanded the majority of the rule. Currently, the manufac­ture, importation, processing, and distribution of most asbestos – containing products is still legal.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA is also responsible for regulating environmental exposure and protecting workers from asbestos exposure. Asbestos-related information and procedures can be found in OSHAs construction industry asbestos standard (29 CFR 1926.58 and 29 CFR 1926.1101). These standards apply to activities involving demolition, removal, or renovation.

Litigation

Recent studies have revealed that in many cases the government, the EPA, the media, and even the public may have overreacted to asbestos building products-related health hazards. The high-profile cases involved workers who had spent years in clouds of asbestos dust. Nevertheless, the inexcusable fact that asbestos companies had actual knowledge of the dangers and health hazards of their asbestos products many years ago has formed the basis for the award of punitive damages against a number of asbestos manufac­turing companies. These punitive damages are awarded by juries to punish the asbestos companies for their conduct of concealing the dangers and health hazards of asbestos from their workers, cus­tomers, the public, and the government, thereby bringing about unnecessary injury and death to a great number of people. Juries have awarded punitive damages against the following asbestos companies: Owens Corning, Owens Illinois, W. R. Grace, Armstrong World Industries, GAF, and U. S. Gypsum. To date, over 40,000 law­suits have been resolved, with another 200,000 pending.[12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]

Conclusion

In summary, it is well established that one should take every pre­caution necessary to avoid contact with asbestos materials. If asbestos-containing materials such as walls, ceilings, pipes, and boilers have been identified, the homeowner should perform rou­tine inspections to verify that the material does not become dam­aged or friable. One government agency has assembled a simple checklist to use in the home.2

8. Do not brush, sweep, or sand ceilings and walls that contain asbestos insulation.

9. Do not knock the plaster or ceiling panels loose when replacing light bulbs or fixtures.

10. Do not saw or drill holes in asbestos materials.

11. Keep activities to a minimum in any areas having damaged materials that may contain asbestos.

12. Have analysis and corrective-type work performed by licensed asbestos professionals.

13. Do not dust, sweep, or vacuum debris that may contain asbestos. These actions will disturb tiny asbestos fibers and may release them into the air.

14. Change shoes before going back upstairs from the basement if there are damaged asbestos materials present in the basement.

15. Use a wet mop or wet cloth when cleaning areas that may con­tain asbestos fibers. Dispose of the mop or cloth when done.

16. Take care not to run into or hit the asbestos material with anything.2

Insulating Board

Structural insulating board, or insulating board, may have been a misnomer because it was more wallboard than insulating board. Nevertheless, most early wallboard products were used either as insulation or sheathing beneath exterior cladding or as a finish material for secondary spaces, such as attics and basements. The distinguishing characteristic of insulation board is that it combines strength with thermal and sound-deadening properties.8 Although still available as an exterior sheathing product, it has largely been replaced by plywood, oriented strandboard, and other exterior sheathing products. Interior applications are also a far cry from its popularity experienced in the homebuilding industry during the 1940s and 1950s.

Since the generic term insulating board encompasses a wide variety of materials, the historical products discussed in the scope of this book will be limited to those also known as fiber wallboards or interior fiberboard. Popular manufacturers included Celotex, Insulite Division of M. & O. Paper Company, Homasote, and Upson Companies. Although structural fiberboard is a present-day “cousin” to these interior products, the gypsum wallboard market appears to have replaced the once-popular use of insulating board.

Product description

Insulating board is made by processing wood, cane, or other veg­etable fibers to a pulp and then reassembling the fibers into boards. Although there were a variety of manufacturing processes, the majority of fiberboard was formed by mechanical processing. Typically, sawmill waste or logs were processed into pulp chips and then sized and moved onto the grinder and exposed to steam pres­sure. Water was then used to soften the fiber bonds of the wood and permit better natural bonding in the consolidation stage. The pulp matter was allowed to flow in a current of water onto a screen, where heavy pressure was applied to remove excess water and form pulp sheets. The sheets were then compressed between platens with a uniform force generated by hydraulic rams. Platens contained either steam or hot water, and they provided plain, smooth surfaces against which the fiberboard was molded. Pressure reduced the mass of wood fibers to a stiff, strong, dense board of interlocked fibers. The last step included drying, trim­ming, and fabricating to produce special finishes, colors, beveling, kerfing, laminating, and packaging.

The greatest changes in the manufacturing process of insulation board related to the speed with which boards could be produced. In 1910, insulation boards 72" thick needed 36 hours to dry; by 1947, the drying process had been reduced to 50 minutes.

According to a 1947 text on insulation products, the principal insulating board interior products were referred to as building board, tileboard (panels), and planks. Building board products were 4 ft in width and varied in length from 6 to 12 ft. Thicknesses were V2 or Iм. Tileboard was manufactured from the same basic stock as building board but in much smaller sizes. Insulating board planks were long, narrow units produced in several widths ranging from 8 to 16" and lengths up to 12 ft.

Low-density boards were generally of greater thickness and also used for thermal and sound insulating purposes. Products such as Celotex’s building board were used as exterior finishes or as sheathing under roofing materials or wall veneers of brick, sid­ing, wood shingles, or stucco. In 1937, Celotex introduced Cemesto, a fire-resistant insulation board surfaced on one or both sides with asbestos cement, which was used in low-cost housing, service stations, and industrial drying plants, as well as for par­titions in office and commercial buildings.

The post-World War II construction industry required mass pro­duction of insulation boards to meet American and international demand for this material. In turn, this encouraged continued research and development of rapid production and finishing tech­niques, including application of paints, lacquer, plastics, and met­als to make boards better suited for interior and exterior finishing of houses.

Installation/details

Contractors generally applied insulation boards to the studs in any frame construction on 12 or 16" centers. Then 2×4 headers were inserted flush between the wood studs to provide a nailing surface for panel edges. Nails typically were spaced 3" apart and not less than 3/8" from the panel edge. Wood battens often were used to cov­er the nails at the board edges unless finishing nails or brads were used inconspicuously. Building boards without a factory finish were stained or painted. Insulating board lath also was used when a plaster coat was to be applied as the interior finish.

Insulation board could be installed directly beneath the roofing material or between the structural framing members of the attic floor or both. When used with flat roofs, insulation board was installed over the roof deck and under the roofing; however, in some instances it was installed in the ceiling. When insulation board was used for sound conditioning, a suspended ceiling type of construc­tion was recommended.

Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation

Formaldehyde is a naturally occurring substance that is found not only in forests but also as a necessary metabolite in our body cells. Commercially, it is a chemical used widely by industry to manufac­ture building materials and numerous household products. For example, formaldehyde is released into the air by burning wood, running kerosene space heaters and unvented fuel-burning appli­ances such as gas stoves, automobile exhaust, and cigarette smoke. Formaldehyde also can off-gas from some building materials when it is used in the production process. These include the glue or adhe­sive in pressed-wood products (particleboard, hardwood plywood, and fiberboard); preservatives in some paints, coatings, and cos­metics; and the coating that provides permanent press-quality to fabrics and draperies.9

High levels of formaldehyde can be an irritant or even a health concern as well. When formaldehyde gas is present in the air at lev­els above 0.1 ppm, it can cause watery eyes; burning sensations in the eyes, nose, and throat; nausea; coughing; chest tightness; wheezing; skin rashes; and allergic reactions. It also has been observed to cause cancer in scientific studies using laboratory ani­mals and may cause cancer in humans. Studies indicate that any risk of causing cancer is believed to be small at the level at which humans typically are exposed.10

Urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) is a low-density foam prepared at the construction site. It is produced from a mixture of urea formaldehyde resin, an acidic foaming agent solution, and a propellant, usually compressed air. This highly expandable foam – in-place insulation is machine-mixed and pumped through a tube, where it expands to fill a cavity. Until it hardens, it looks and feels like shaving cream. It is usually white or cream colored, although it may be tinted blue. After curing, UFFI looks and feels like dried – up shaving cream, resembling a crumbly structure with a powdery residue. A positive identification can only be made through labora­tory testing.

This method of onsite preparation is potentially dangerous because the chemicals are not always combined in the right pro­portions. In many homes the foam ingredients were improperly mixed, which resulted in excessive formaldehyde gas being released in the house. If too much formaldehyde was used, gas would seep into the home. Some formaldehyde gas also is released during the onsite mixing and curing, which mandates adequate ventilation for the installer. Although formaldehyde is colorless, it has a very strong odor, which generally can be detected at concen­trations above 1 ppm. It is this by-product of the curing of the foam that has become a controversial issue.

History

UFFI was first used in Europe but quickly became popular in Canada in the 1970s. The insulation was used most extensively from 1975 to 1978, during the period of the Canadian Home Insulation Program (CHIP), when financial incentives were offered by the gov­ernment to upgrade home insulation levels. Although more than 100,000 Canadian homes were insulated with UFFI during this time, health complaints started from the occupants of UFFI-insulat – ed homes around 1978.11 Although the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) gave UFFI preliminary acceptance, provided that certain criteria were met, in 1977, it was found in 1979 that formaldehyde caused cancer in laboratory rats. UFFI subse­quently was banned across Canada on December 17,1980.11 On June 15,1981, a government removal assistance program for homeowners was announced that ran until September 1986.

Similar action was taken in the United States. By 1979, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) had received sever­al hundred complaints, the majority from Massachusetts home – owners. (It is believed that about 10,000 homes in Massachusetts also were insulated with UFFI.12) In February 1982, the CPSC ordered a ban on all sales of UFFI for homes and schools. The CPSC ruled that because formaldehyde gas often is released from the foam after installation, UFFI presents an “unreasonable health risk.” In April 1983, however, a federal appellate court struck down this ban. The court ruled that there was not sufficient scientific evi­dence to justify the ban. Litigation in Canada yielded similar results. After the longest and most expensive civil case ever held in Canada, lasting 8 years and concluded in the Quebec Superior Court, not only was there no basis for a settlement found, but the plaintiffs also were obliged to pay for most of the costs.13

In 1985, Massachusetts enacted legislation that required sellers to disclose if UFFI had ever been installed at a property. Still in effect today, the seller has to provide the lending institution with a form disclosing any knowledge of the insulation’s presence.14

Since the sale of urea formaldehyde foam insulation has largely stopped, the CPSC has modified the warnings against UFFI. The CPSC still believes that the evidence shows that risks are associ­ated with UFFI; CPSC officials now advise consumers to leave insulation alone if they have not experienced any health prob­lems.15 In a 1990 technical document, the CPSC stated that formaldehyde released from UFFI decreases rapidly after the first few months and reaches background levels in a few years. Therefore, urea-formaldehyde foam insulation installed 5 to 10 years ago is unlikely to still release formaldehyde.10

History now shows that even though the U. S. Court of Appeals struck down the law because there was no substantial evidence clearly linking UFFI to health complaints, the marketability of UFFI already had been destroyed.13 Even today, in many states, real estate agents must inform prospective buyers if a house con­tains UFFI. Whether it is a problem in a particular house or not, it is going to be viewed as a liability.16 UFFI is still used in Europe, where it was never banned and is considered by some as one of the better retrofit insulations.

Product identification

As mentioned earlier, UFFI is usually white, cream colored, or has a bluish tint. Resembling dried-up shaving cream, it has a crumbly structure and a powdery residue. If UFFI is suspected in a dwelling, more extensive testing should be undertaken by an envi­ronmental specialist. If the gases are below the prescribed levels of 0.1 ppm, no further remedial action is necessary. Formaldehyde gas levels typically decline rapidly to below this level after the first year. Since UFFI generally was installed years ago, any vapors from the insulation would be negligible.

Installation

Many of the problems eventually caused by UFFI were due to faulty installation. This was due in large part to the fact that the installed product could not effectively be standardized because it was prepared on site. Even though the foam’s ingredients may have been of the highest quality, the composition of the installed material was largely dependent on the skill of the installer.

UFFI was installed by using a pumpset and hoses with a mixing gun to mix the foaming agent and the resin. Installed under air pressure up to 100 lb/in2, UFFI was injected through V2 to 2" holes in mortar joints, gypsum wallboard, wood siding, aluminum siding, concrete blocks, etc. UFFI was particularly suitable for use in cav­ities of existing buildings because it foamed to full dimension before injection into the cavity. The danger of expanding foam thereby was eliminated. Shrinkage of UFFI was common, usually between 1 and 3 percent. Canadian sources state that almost all types of construction had UFFI installed during the 1970s. UFFI was used in attics, common walls of row houses or semidetached homes, office walls, apartment buildings, condominiums, and garage ceilings where rooms are over garages. Applications also included sound insulation as well as air sealant in commercial and industrial structures.17

Once again, UFFI insulation should not be confused with other foam insulations that are often installed by homeowners as a sealant around windows, doors, and foundation sills. These foams, usually urethane from aerosol cans, harden to tough, plastic mate­rials, whereas UFFI sets to a friable material that turns to dust when touched.

Health considerations

Formaldehyde is currently considered by OSHA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to be a cat­egory 1 potential occupational carcinogen, which means that formaldehyde potentially may cause cancer in humans. No federal standard has been set for formaldehyde; however, OSHA now reg­ulates formaldehyde as a carcinogen. OSHA has adopted a permis­sible exposure level (PEL) of 0.75 ppm and an action level of 0.5 ppm. OSHA also requires labeling informing exposed workers about the presence of formaldehyde in products entering work­places that can cause levels to exceed 0.1 ppm. Some states have established a standard of 0.4 ppm in their codes for residences; oth­ers have established much lower recommendations (e. g., the California guideline is 0.05 ppm). Based on current information, it is advisable to mitigate formaldehyde that is present at levels high­er than 0.1 ppm.18

Formaldehyde is normally present at low levels, usually less than 0.03 ppm, in both outdoor and indoor air. (This number will vary because the outdoor air in rural areas has lower concentra­tions, whereas urban areas have higher concentrations.) By com­parison, typical levels in the smoking section of a cafeteria are 0.16 ppm.13 Products such as carpets or gypsum board do not contain significant amounts of formaldehyde when new, but they may trap formaldehyde emitted from other sources and later release the formaldehyde into the indoor air when the temperature and humidity change.

Residences or offices that contain products that release formalde­hyde to the air can have formaldehyde levels of greater than 0.03 ppm. Products that may add formaldehyde to the air include parti­cleboard used as flooring underlayment, shelving, furniture, and cabinets; MDF in cabinets and furniture; hardwood plywood wall panels; and urea-formaldehyde foam used as insulation. As formaldehyde levels increase, illness or discomfort is more likely to occur and may be more serious.10

A number of studies have been done examining the health effects of UFFI. In a study in Britain, people who worked in envi­ronments with high formaldehyde levels, such as morticians and laboratory technicians, were studied for possible health effects. These subjects were found to have a less-than-average number of respiratory diseases and actually lived slightly longer, on average. Studies using a random sampling of UFFI and non-UFFI homes, done before the ban, showed no impact of UFFI on health. However, studies done after the ban showed increased reporting of symptoms, even for such things as constipation and deafness, which have no biologic basis.13

As mentioned earlier, formaldehyde emissions from building materials decrease as the materials age, particularly over the first 2 or 3 years. Older urea-formaldehyde building materials most probably will not be a significant source of formaldehyde emissions. If the presence of formaldehyde is suspected, a qualified building inspector should be hired to examine the home for the presence of formaldehyde-emitting materials. In addition, home monitoring kits are currently available for testing formaldehyde levels in the home. Be sure that the testing device will monitor for a minimum of 24 hours to ensure that the sampling period is truly representa­tive.18 Inexpensive passive samplers, which usually run for several days, and detector tubes also have been developed, whereas the more accurate method of collecting formaldehyde is by impingers. Technically known as the chromatropic acid test, it usually takes about 90 minutes. Testing should be performed when the relative humidity is over 50 percent and the temperature is above 70°F.19

Conclusion

UFFI has been referred to as the most thoroughly investigated and most innocuous building product in Canada. Whether this is true or not, it has certainly gained notoriety for all the wrong reasons. Its virtual elimination from the marketplace also may prove to have been for “the wrong reason”; however, when it comes to a question of personal health, few homeowners are willing, or should be forced, to take unnecessary risks.

Appendix

For further information on asbestos and UFFI, contact

U. S. Consumer Product Safety Commission Washington, DC 20207 800-638-2772 http:/ /www. cpsc. gov

The regional offices of the EPA are perhaps the best sources of additional information about environmental hazards in specific states and local areas. Each EPA regional office has information on states and areas within a single geographic area.

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency

Public Information Center

401 M Street, SW

Washington, DC 20460

202-475-7751

EPA Region 1 (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont)

John F. Kennedy Federal Building Room 2203 Boston, MA 02203 617-565-3715

EPA Region 2 (New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands)

26 Federal Plaza New York, NY 10278 212-264-2515

EPA Region 3 (Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Washington, D. C., and West Virginia)

841 Chestnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19107 800-438-2474

EPA Region 4 (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee)

345 Courtland Street, NE Atlanta, GA 30365 800-282-0239 in Georgia 800-241-1754 in other Region 4 states

EPA Region 5 (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin)

230 South Dearborn Street

Chicago, IL 60604

800-572-2515 in Illinois

800-621-8431 in other Region 5 states

EPA Region 6 (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas)

1445 Ross Avenue Suite 1200 Dallas, TX 75202 214-655-2200

EPA Region 7 (Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska)

726 Minnesota Avenue Kansas City, KS 66101 913-236-2803

EPA Region 8 (Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming)

999 18th Street Suite 500 Denver, CO 80202 800-759-4372

EPA Region 9 (Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada)

215 Fremont Street San Francisco, CA 94105 415-974-8076

EPA Region 10 (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington)

1200 Sixth Avenue Seattle, WA 98101 206-442-5810

J. May Home Inspections, Inc.

1522 Cambridge St

Cambridge MA 02139

617-354-0152

Fax: 617-354-0749

E-mail: jmhi@shell. cybercom. net

NCI Public Inquiries Office Cancer Information Service Building, 31, Room 10A03 31 Center Drive, MSC 2580 Bethesda, MD 20892-2580 301-435-3848

Laboratory Accreditation Administration NIST

Gaithersburg, MD 20899 301-975-4016

Restoration Environmental Contractors (REC)

Don Bremner

Vice President of Operations and Project Manager Box 746

10 Stalwart Industrial Drive, Unit 5 Gormley, Ontario, Canada L0H 1G0 800-894-4924

http:/ /www. environmentalhazards. com/contact/index. htm

References

1. USA Today, February 9, 1999.

2. New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Consumer and Environmental Health Services.

3. Todd Buchanan, USA Today, February 11, 1999.

4. Shelley Murphy, “Class-Action Lawsuits Filed Against W. R. Grace,” Boston Globe, February 23, 2000, p. Bl.

5. Associated Press, “Suits Filed Against W. R. Grace Over Asbestos-Tainted Insulation,” Boston Globe, February 24, 2000.

6. Architectural Graphic Standards CD-ROM, (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998).

7. http:/ /www. pp. okstate. edu/ehs/modules/asbharm. htm.

8. Paul Dunham Close, Sound Control and Thermal Insulation of Buildings (New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1966), p. 234.

9. “Sources of Information on Indoor Air Quality, Formaldehyde,” EPA Web site: http:/ /www. epa. gov/iedweb00/formalde. html.

10. “An Update on Formaldehyde: 1997 Revision,” CPSC Document No. 725, U. S. Consumer Safety Commission. Available at http://www. cpsc. gov/cpscpub/ pubs/ 725.html.

11. Brian J. Mitchell, The Residential Energy Efficiency Database (REED). Available at http:/ /www. its-canada. com/reed/iaq/uffi. htm.

12. Robert S. Kutner, Boston Herald, April 9, 1999.

13. Alan Carson and John Caverly, “Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation, Much Ado About Nothing?” reprinted in The Inspector, the newsletter for the Ontario Association of Home Inspectors, Spring 1993.

14. J. May Home Inspections, Inc., Web site: http:/ /www. cybercom.

net / ~jmhi/noframes. html.

15. NCI Public Inquiries Office, Cancer Information Service Web site: http: / /cis. nci. nih. gov /fact /3_8. htm.

16. John Bower, Indiana Builder (September 1990): 30.

17. Restoration Environmental Contractors (REC): http://www. environmental- hazards. com / contact / index, htm.

18. “Typical Indoor Air Pollutants,” Appendix E, March 23, 1998. Available at http:/ /www. epa. gov/iaq/schools/tfs/guidee. html.

19. J. May Home Inspections, Inc., email correspondence, May 14, 2000.

Chapter

17

Future Insulation Products and

Technologies

Advances are being made in the development of technologically superior insulation products. Some of these products include aero­gels, powder-filled panels, evacuated panels, vacuum insulation panels, and phase-change materials. Not only are these technolo­gies a significant departure from thermal mass-type materials, they are generally thinner, lighter, and possess much higher R-val – ues than common insulation materials available today.

Aerogels

Aerogels have great potential in a wide range of applications that include energy-efficient insulation and windows, acoustics, gas – phase catalysis, battery technology, and microelectronics. Besides being the best thermal, electrical, and acoustic insulators known, aerogels are finding application as filters for seawater desalina­tion, micrometeoroid collectors, and subatomic particle detectors. In the future, aerogels could be used in windows, building insula­tion, automobile catalytic converters, and high-efficiency battery electrodes.

Aerogels, on a per-weight basis, may be the strongest, lightest, and most transparent building material ever produced. Aerogels are one of the few existing materials that are both transparent and porous. Typically produced from silicon or carbon, aerogels are sol­id with a porous, spongelike structure in which 99 percent of the volume is empty space. Weighing as little as three times as much

as air, a single lM-thick piece of this silica-based material has the internal surface area of a basketball court.1 It can be formed into almost any useful shape and makes an excellent insulator.2

Most important are the thermal dissipation properties possessed by aerogels. For example, a piece of chocolate resting on a cracker­sized aerogel disk will not melt when torched by a blue flame 1 cm beneath the disk.2 In more relative terms, Iм of a type of aerogel in a vacuum offers insulation equivalent to 10" of fiberglass.3

History

Aerogels were first discovered in 1931 by physicist Steven S. Kistler of the College of the Pacific, in Stockton, California. He proved experimentally that liquid-based gels (or jellies) were an open solid network of cells permeated by liquid. Kistler stated, “…if one wishes to produce an aerogel, one must replace the liquid with air by some means in which the surface of the liquid is never per­mitted to recede within the gel. If a liquid is held under pressure always greater than the vapor pressure, and the temperature is raised, it will be transformed at the critical temperature into a gas without two phases having been present at any time.”4

Kistler made the first aerogel by soaking a water-based gel in alcohol to replace the water. Then he heated the alcohol and gel in a closed container to a high temperature and pressure and slowly depressurized the vessel. This allowed the alcohol, now a vapor, to escape, leaving an air-filled cellular matrix.2

Aerogel research was largely abandoned until the 1980s when, using new chemicals, it was produced for elementary particle detectors. Soon after this, a new, safer method of production was developed under the leadership of Arlon J. Hunt at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, leading to identification of applications for aerogels as insulators and later as cosmic dust collectors on two space missions.5 Aerogels also were used for insulation on the Mars rover Pathfinder.

Product description

Aerogel starts out as a delicate three-dimensional framework of clusters of molecules linked together in a liquid medium. The liq­uid helps support the framework and holds the clusters in place. The linked clusters create a springy molecular mesh containing thousands of open pores filled with fluid, similar to a wet sponge.

To create aerogel, the liquid must be removed carefully from the mesh. Under normal conditions, capillary pressures generated by evaporation of the liquid cause the framework to collapse on itself. As the gel’s interior walls squeeze together, reactive molecules per­manently bond, leaving a compressed semiporous gel that is a frac­tion of its original volume.

Silica aerogel is the best known and most widely prepared aero­gel. A simplified silica aerogel recipe, according to the Aerogel Research Laboratory at the University of Virginia, begins by com­bining a silica-based solution with 200-proof ethanol, ammonium hydroxide, and water, which form a Jello-like substance called alco – gel. The alcogel is then soaked in ethanol for a length of time suffi­cient to extract the water from the alcogel. Once most of the water has been replaced by alcohol, the alcogel is ready to be supercriti – cally dried, a process that removes liquid from the microstructure of the alcogel. The alcogel is placed in a pressure chamber that is filled with carbon dioxide. When the C02 replaces the alcohol, the chamber is heated and pressurized in a supercritical drying process. When it returns to room temperature and standard pres­sure, the process is finished, and an aerogel is the result.5

A typical aerogel is a solid foam consisting of 5 percent silica (Si02 or common sand) and 95 percent air-filled pores. Both the pores and their properties are smaller than the wavelength of light (less than 100 billionths of a meter).5 The silica particles are 2 to 5 nm in diameter; the pores are about 20 nm wide. The unique microstructure of aerogels—nanometer-sized cells, pores, and par­ticles—means low thermal conduction. Some silica aerogels contain as little as 0.13 percent silica, with the remainder (99.87 percent) being air.6

The optical properties of silica aerogels are best described as “transparent” and thus are considered most likely for window or skylight applications. This may seem obvious, since silica aerogels are made of the same material as glass but do have the same opti­cal characteristics. While distant objects can be viewed through several centimeters of silica aerogel, the material displays a slight bluish haze when an illuminated piece is viewed against a dark background and slightly reddens transmitted light.7 This blue col­or arises from the presence of large pores formed during the gella – tion, and the hypothesis currently being tested by the most recent NASA experiments centers on whether a more uniform and there­fore transparent gel can be made in space. Since aerogel has the equivalent thermal insulating quality of 10 to 20 glass window panes, the energy-conserving effects of an aerogel window replace­ment would significantly lower heating bills, particularly in north­ern climates.1

The transfer of thermal conduction through the solid portion of the aerogel is limited by the small connections between the parti­cles making up the conduction path. Gaseous conduction is limited because the cells/pores are only the size of the mean free path for molecular collisions—molecules collide with the solid network as frequently as they collide with each other. Radiative conduction is low because aerogels have small mass fractions and large surface areas—although conductivity increases with temperature.8

Aerogels in a partial vacuum are even better insulators because removing most of the air from their pores eliminates half to two – thirds of the material’s thermal conductivity (the portion due to gas conduction). Silica aerogel in a 90 percent vacuum, which is simply and inexpensively produced, has a thermal resistance of R-20 per inch. Thus a 1-in-thick aerogel window has the same thermal resis­tance as a window with 10 double panes of glass. LBNL researchers have improved the performance to R-32 per inch by adding carbon to absorb infrared radiation in the material, another mechanism of heat transfer.2

Carbon aerogels are a variation of the extremely lightweight silica aerogels. Carbon aerogel is made by heating polymeric aerogel in a vacuum or inert gas (otherwise, it will oxidize or burn). Carbon aero­gel is also a good insulator but is very black, so it must be used in applications where transparency is not needed. Stiffer and stronger than silica aerogels, carbon aerogels are electrically conductive. Advanced, thin-film carbon aerogel electrodes were developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 1993, patented in 1995, and are now being produced commercially.9 Carbon aerogels have just recently been synthesized and represent the first electri­cally conductive aerogel. This property, in combination with high surface area, controllable pore size, and high purity, is leading to new electrochemical applications for these unique materials.

Organic aerogels are stiffer and stronger than silica aerogels and are measurably better insulators. They have extremely high thermal resistance—six times more resistance than fiberglass insulation. Two organic aerogels developed at LLNL have equivalent R-values of R-12 when air-filled (equivalent to the insulating capacity of 6" of fiberglass batting) and greater than R-38 when evacuated (equiva­lent to 19" of fiberglass). Organic aerogels can be converted to pure carbon aerogels and still retain many properties of the original aero­gel, in addition to becoming electrically conductive.10

Polymeric aerogels can be transparent or deeply colored. The resorcinol aerogels are the second most widely produced aerogels and are deep red to brown in color and somewhat stronger than sil­ica aerogels. Melamed aerogels have been made flexible and most­ly transparent but have not been studied extensively and may not withstand a vacuum to get maximum thermal performance. Scientists have produced various other aerogels from metal oxides, e. g., alumina, titania, mixed alumina and silica, etc., but they are generally only made in very small sizes, e. g., centimeter samples, and tend to be fragile or have other manufacturing difficulties.11

Cost

Cost for the products currently runs high because the demand is low. One source states that aerogels are five times more expensive than polyurethane foam.12 One aerogel manufacturer produces a half-inch sheet of flexible aerogel blanket, not much bigger than a breadboard, that currently costs approximately $900. Short-term prices have been predicted to drop to approximately $35 per square foot, whereas long-term predictions drop the price of aerogel blan­kets to as low as $10 per square foot. The same is said to be true for the aerogel powder. One cubic foot of silica aerogel powder, available now for $2300, will fall to $60 once demand pushes production to 50,000 ft3 per year.5 The cost of carbon aerogels also should drop sig­nificantly as more manufacturing licensees are developed.9

Vacuum Insulation Panels

Vacuum insulation technology focuses on the basic physical princi­ple that heat cannot be conducted in the absence of air. It is the absence of molecules to pass heat through a given distance that also makes a vacuum a good insulator. Known as the Dewar principle, vacuum insulation is best demonstrated by the glass vacuum bottle, also known as the common Thermos bottle, which has been used to transport and maintain hot or cold liquids for years. In a Dewar’s flask, no insulation “material” is used because the space between the dual walls of the cylinder is completely (99.999999 percent) evacuated. This creates an extremely high R-value, typically R-250 or higher, since there are no molecules of gas available to transport heat between the two walls.13

There are obvious physical limitations of the Dewar’s flask serv­ing as practical insulation for residential applications. Additionally, since even a few molecules of gas will destroy its insulation value, the cylinder walls must be absolutely impermeable to gas and mois­ture. This limits the wall material to either specially treated glass or metal, both of which have a tendency to conduct significant amounts of heat at areas where the walls are joined together. Recent technological advances in materials and manufacturing processes have created a growing commercial market for these tough, flexible, and versatile products. Vacuum insulation now encompasses a wide range of filler materials clad in various types of gas-barrier exteriors. Uses include insulated shipping containers for distribution of food, pharmaceutical, and biomedical products; insulation panels in refrigerators, coolers, and packaging to allow mailing refrigerated items over long distances; insulation for the ceilings of truck and car cabs; and other applications where light­weight, thin, high-performance insulation is valued.

Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) have been around since the mid-1950s. The principal advantage of VIPs over competing prod­ucts such as polyurethane (closed-cell), expanded polystyrene, and fiberglass is their high R-value per inch of thickness. VIPs are three to seven times more effective than competing products. Depending on the core material, VIPs are also referred to as pow­der evacuated panels (PEPs) or simply evacuated panels.

Product description

As VIP researchers continue to explore new innovations, the com­position of VIPs is likely to change. At present, the simplest con­struction of a VIP consists of the exterior walls that contain the vacuum and filler materials inside. Also known as the membrane film, the wall provides a barrier against atmospheric gases and moisture so that the vacuum can be maintained. Impermeable membrane materials can be glass, metal or metal foil, plastic, or a composite such as polymeric exteriors (film or sheet) with or with­out metallized surfaces.

For building construction applications, glass may be too fragile. Simple metal barriers can be used, but these significantly reduce the average insulation value of the finished panel owing to the con­ductance of heat around the edges where the walls are joined (also called the edge effect). Another disadvantage of a pure metal mem­brane is the high cost of forming and welding the panel.

In some barriers, a very thin metal film, such as aluminum, is reinforced by laminating a plastic film on each side. A special plas­tic with a low melting temperature is then added so as to allow the finished laminate to be “heat sealed” rather than welded. In an effort to reduce the edge effect even further, some films use a sput­ter-coated thin-film deposition technique to get the metal layer even thinner. When done correctly, these films offer a good com­promise between the solid metal films and pure plastic laminates.13

The core material serves two major functions. First, it provides physical support to the membrane (or barrier) film envelope so that it does not collapse in on itself when the vacuum is applied. Second, the core material acts to interrupt the flow (free mean path) of the molecules of gas that still remain in the evacuated space, thereby reducing their ability to transfer heat between the walls of the VIP.

A number of core materials are used by different manufacturers. Powders (such as perlite, mineral powder, mineral fiber, fiberglass, silica), rigid open-celled foams (such as polyurethane and microcel – lular polystyrene foam board), or carbon/silica aerogels are used as fillers. While most of these materials are not very expensive in their raw form, they require considerable handling and prepro­cessing, which greatly increases the cost of the end-product. Aerogel panels achieve extremely high R-values with less vacuum than would be required with other types of cores.

R-value

Based on the specific combination of barrier material, fillers, and vacuum level, R-values from 16 to 40 per inch can be obtained at room temperature. At lower temperatures, the R-value increases. At — 10°F, for example, the R-value is in excess of 35. (One manu­facturer has obtained measurements of R-60 at dry-ice tempera­tures.) The selection of materials to make a panel for a particular application include issues of size, shape, thickness, longevity, ruggedness, ambient temperature, and whether pass-throughs or other design requirements are involved.

Dow Chemical, manufacturer of an open-cell foam material that is vacuum sealed within a metallized film or foil, has stated that its panels have an R-value approximately six times greater than traditional fiberglass insulation. The new product consists of a patented, Г’-thick advanced insulation panel that can produce the same R-value as 6" of fiberglass insulation.14 Tests also have been conducted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) that produced similar results.

Cost

The finished VIP system currently costs from $4.00 to $7.00 per square foot, depending on the density of the core board and other specifications required by the customer. These prices are expected to be reduced to $3.50 to $5.00 per square foot in the very near future. The cost of the core foam board currently ranges from $0.85 to $3.00 per square foot, depending on the density, grade, and man­ufacturer. Currently, the fabrication process is responsible for a major portion of the cost, but cost is expected to drop with larger volumes and more efficient fabrication.

Installation/details

Residential applications are limited at the present. It is obvious that any mishandling or nail punctures of the relatively fragile metallized envelope during the home construction process can lead to a loss of vacuum and insulating capability of the VIP. For the same reason, it is important during the installation process that any bending of the joined flanges of the barrier envelope surround­ing the core panel occur adjacent to, rather than on, the seal. Current trends seem to suggest that it is only a matter of time before more durable products will be available for home construc­tion. Processes are currently in development that apply a polyurethane coating to the panels to provide greater strength, durability, and specification consistency.

Limitations

The life expectancy of a vacuum insulation panel is determined by a number of factors. These include the outgassing (if any) of the core material and membrane film, the permeation rate of the mem­brane film and sealing edge, the quantity and effectiveness of the getter and desiccant, and the effect of pressure rise on the specific core material.13 (Getters are used to absorb gases, and desiccants are used to absorb moisture within the evacuated envelope. These processes prevent or delay an elevation of the internal pressure and a degradation in R-value.)

Current VIP systems will not meet minimum insulation require­ments as required by the International Energy Conservation Code

(IECC) for wall or roof insulation because of the relatively short life of the vacuum. Various sources suggest that the longest expected life of the VIP in its current form is estimated to be between 10 and 20 years. This is too low for consideration in use as wall or roof insula­tion, but door or window frame insulation could be a possible use. By combining silica core materials or by using certain combinations of films and getters with newer, less permeable membrane materials, projected life spans of 50+ years can be realistic. Unfortunately, high cost remains a major barrier to wide-scale adaptation of silica-based VIPs.13

Gas-Filled Panels

Another advanced insulation product that is under development is gas-filled panels (GFPs). This concept uses multiple reflective cells and gas in a sealed panel to retard heat transfer. This technology was developed by the E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1989 and should be available commercially in the future.

Product description

GFPs are composed of hermetic plastic bags with a boxlike shape that enclose a honeycomb baffle of thin polymer film and a low-con­ductivity gas. The panel interior consists of a multilayer baffle that is bonded to both faces of the barrier envelope, which is forced apart by the gas fill. This bonded assembly uses metalized, low – emissivity film, producing a cellular structure within the panel. Moderate levels of performance are obtained with air as the fill gas. The resistance obtained with air is an R-value of 5 per inch. Higher-performance designs use low-diffusion gas barrier films to provide the hermetic barrier, whose purpose is to retain the panel’s gas fill, and can take on a variety of shapes and sizes. The best can­didate gases to fill GFPs are argon and krypton because both have lower conductivities than air. Argon gas filling provides an effective thermal resistance level of R-7 per inch, krypton gas provides R – 12.5 per inch, and xenon gas provides R-20 per inch.15

Installation/details

GFPs are basically flexible and self-supporting. Manufacturers could fabricate GFPs in a variety of shapes and sizes to fill most types of cavities in building walls and roofs. For a typical installa­tion of GFPs in a wood-frame wall assembly, panels are fastened to studs with staples through panel flaps. Adhesive-backed tape seals adjacent panels across the stud, so the insulation also becomes an air-barrier/moisture-retarding component. The far face of the pan­el adheres to the exterior sheathing to provide added air sealing and to keep the panel expanded. Researchers indicate that gas could even be added to unfilled panels on site.16

Cost

Since GFPs are not yet being manufactured, researchers provide estimated panel costs for building applications based on current material component costs. For example, an argon-filled, 3.5M-thick (89-mm) panel may cost $0.69 per square foot to manufacture, whereas a 10M-thick (254-mm) panel may cost $1.46 per square foot.16

Cost is comparable with that of CFC blown foam insulation for argon-filled GFPs that achieve similar insulation levels. Cost for air-filled GFPs is greater than fiberglass insulation for a given wall thickness, but such GFPs allow attainment of significantly greater R-values for a given wall thickness.

Argon gas may be the best choice based on price. Although kryp­ton-filled panels yield a lower conductivity, the scarcity and high cost of krypton gas ($0.35 per liter) make it better suited for refrig­erator insulation than for a building envelope. Xenon yields panels with the lowest conductivity, but its cost ($4.00 per liter) makes it useful only in exotic applications.

Limitations

Testing has been limited as compared with market-established insulation materials. For example, flame-spread and smoke-gener­ation testing needs to be performed. Full-scale wall assembly mea­surements that better demonstrate thermal performance in actual building installations also need to be performed.16

Environmental considerations

Argon-filled GFPs can achieve insulation values similar to those of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) blown foams, without the use of CFCs. Gas fills are also inert and harmless. Any other environmental effects will depend on the character of the barrier and baffle materials.

Availability

The technology appears to be versatile enough for widespread use in traditional wood-frame construction, although some difficulties need to be overcome for site-built construction to make GFPs fit oddly shaped cavities. Initial uses will likely be in manufactured housing and panelized building systems.16

Phase-Change Materials

Phase-change materials (PCMs) are substances that store and release energy by changing phase. Most store energy when they turn liquid at a certain temperature and release energy when they turn solid at a certain temperature; some remain solid but under­go chemical changes that store and release energy. The change of phase occurs during the melting, solidification, or sublimation of the specific material. A PCM has the ability to absorb large amounts of energy when it undergoes a change of phase. During this change of phase, the material remains at nearly a constant temperature. PCM-based devices have been used mainly for elec­tronics cooling, telecommunication systems, and also on U. S. spacecraft, including some shuttle-launched missions.

PCMs now under research and development for commercial building applications can smooth daily fluctuations in room tem­perature by lowering the peak temperatures resulting from extremes of external daily temperature changes. The main advan­tage of PCMs for thermal storage is that the mass (and hence vol­ume) required for a given storage capacity is small compared with rocks, concrete, water, or other passive solar materials.

Product description

As mentioned earlier, materials undergoing a phase change by freezing, melting, condensing, or boiling store and release large amounts of heat with small changes in temperature. PCMs allow the thermal storage to become part of the building’s structure, per­mitting substantial energy storage without changing the tempera­ture of the room envelope.17 PCMs are solid at room temperature, but when temperature becomes warmer, they liquefy and absorb heat. Conversely, when the temperature drops, the material will solidify and give off heat energy. The possible use of PCMs in the building envelope would absorb the heat of higher exterior temper­ature and retard the heating of the interior, which is equivalent to cooling the house, during the day. As the temperature declines in the evening, the PCMs would warm the home at night as they give off heat.

Phase-change gypsum wallboard

Phase-change gypsum wallboard is one example of a building – integrated heat storage material. PCMs are incorporated into the gypsum wallboard panels to moderate the thermal environment within the building. The function of the PCM gypsum wallboard is very basic. As the air temperature in a room rises, so does the temperature of the wall. As the wall temperature climbs above the PCM’s transition temperature (the point at which the mater­ial changes phase), the PCM absorbs heat and melts inside the gypsum wallboard. As the room temperature decreases, the PCM releases heat and returns to a solid again. A less costly and less bulky replacement of the standard thermal mass (e. g., masonry or water) used in solar heating, it is at the present only produced for research.

Researchers believe phase-change gypsum wallboard can shift much of the summer air-conditioning load to later time periods, allowing customers to take advantage of cool night air and off – peak utility rates. The household temperatures remain relative­ly stable until all the PCM melts. In the winter, warming the PCMs from a conventional furnace could reduce furnace cycling and increase efficiency. Computer simulations show that PCM – treated wallboard can eliminate the need for air conditioners in mild climate zones, such as portions of California. This means that such residences will cost less to cool and possibly eliminate the cost of installing air conditioners. PCM gypsum wallboard also has an advantage over conventional thermal mass in solar heating applications. Because the exposed surface is so large and the PCM absorbs heat over a narrow temperature range, the gyp­sum wallboard need not receive direct sunlight. PCM gypsum wallboard has a much greater heat-storage capacity than does conventional thermal mass and provides excellent heat transfer. It demands no extra structural support, and any added installa­tion cost is minimal.18

Researchers suggest that there are several important considera­tions relevant to combining PCM into gypsum wallboard. First, the transition temperature, or melting temperature, of the PCM must be near standard or suggested room temperatures. These would be 65 to 72°F for heating-dominated climates or 72 to 79°F for cooling – dominated climates. Because the PCM uses the exchange of heat energy from its environment to drive the phase change, this change of state from solid to liquid or liquid to solid characteristically occurs within a temperature range of only a few degrees. Second, the PCM product must be effective, offering good heat transfer, and be economical. Claims are that the PCM wallboard under develop­ment could save up to 20 percent of house space-conditioning costs.17

Paraffins, or waxes, may be the best choice for the PCM in gypsum wallboard. They are readily available, inexpensive, and melt at dif­ferent temperatures relating to their carbon chain length. At present, paraffin is incorporated into gypsum wallboard in two ways, either by direct immersion or by permeated plastic pellets that are added to the gypsum wallboard mixture during the manufacturing process.18

Immersion is the simplest, lowest-cost method for making PCM gypsum wallboard. Although gypsum wallboard dipped in paraffin becomes water-resistant, PCM gypsum wallboard is quite flamma­ble unless treated with fire-retardant chemicals. (This process is not recommended for do-it-yourselfers.) Polyethylene pellets, satu­rated with melted paraffin and then mixed with wet gypsum and compressed in sheet form, also yield production-quality gypsum wallboard. Compared with immersed gypsum wallboard, this material is more fire-resistant, less water-resistant, and conforms to the current gypsum wallboard manufacturing process. Both ver­sions work well for heat transfer and storage, and the paraffin remains permanently in the gypsum wallboard.18

Other methods and PCMs are currently being studied, such as fatty acids, which come from meat by-products and vegetables. Cheap, renewable, and readily available different types of fatty acids also have different melting points. Fatty acids are also incor­porated into the gypsum wallboard by immersion or encapsulation and yield the same heat and stability characteristics as paraffin – based PCM wallboard.18

A fundamental problem in the development of phase-change stor­age is that the range of temperatures over which some of the mate­rials change phase can be quite narrow or may be a single ideal temperature, limiting the material’s use in climates where both heating and cooling are important. Researchers must resolve some issues and provide documentation before commercialization can proceed. Issues relate to proof of fire safety, perceived comfort fac­tor, and economic payback from energy savings. With regard to PCM gypsum wallboard, the correct transition temperature for one region will not be appropriate for another. Gypsum wallboard man­ufacturers may be reluctant to complicate their manufacturing processes in order to take these regional variations into account.

The extended storage capacity of PCM-treated double gypsum wallboard (two sheets of gypsum wallboard attached together) can keep room temperatures close to the upper comfort limits without mechanical cooling. In climates with large diurnal temperature swings, night-time ventilation can be used to discharge the latent storage of the wallboard.17

Phase-change attic insulation

A private company, with the help of the U. S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has developed another building envelope application. It has tested an attic insula­tion that absorbs heat in the daytime and then releases it at night. Called RCR, the PCM consists of perlite embedded with hydro­genated calcium chloride. This PCM changes phase from solid to liq­uid at 82°F, absorbing heat from the hot attic during the day, before it can penetrate the home. When attic temperatures cool at night, the PCM solidifies and releases heat back into the attic, moderating outdoor temperatures. The PCM attic insulation would be hermeti­cally sealed for installation between two layers of certain insulation materials such as extruded polystyrene, urethane, or cellulose.17

A computer model of the laboratory tests of the attic PCM insu­lation showed that it reduced the total heat flow by 22 percent, and the peak heat flow was 42 percent lower than with an equal thick­ness of fiberglass insulation. It reduced the air-conditioning load by 40 percent and shifted the peak load up to 8 hours, depending on the climate. PCM insulation may be most effective in climates that have sharp variations between day and night temperatures.17

Plastic Fiber Insulation

According to the DOE, another new type of insulation entering the residential marketplace is plastic fiber insulation. Plastic fiber batts are made from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET), commonly used to make milk containers known under the trade­mark name, Mylar. PET-covered insulation products have been used extensively in the aviation industry. Residential products have thick fibers, making extremely soft batt insulation that looks like high-density fiberglass. R-values vary with batt density:

3.8 per inch at 1.0 lb/ft3 density

4.3 per inch at 3.0 lb/ft3 density

The recycled content and clean manufacturing process help make this polyester insulation material a good addition to the market. The insulation also does not irritate the skin. It does not burn when exposed to an open flame, but it melts at a low temperature—a def­inite disadvantage. The batts are also difficult to cut with standard job-site tools, and the insulation tends to accordion when handled. Major U. S. insulation manufacturers are expected to produce plas­tic fiber insulation products within the next few years.18

Appendix

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC)

RO. Box 3048 Merrifield, VA 22116 800-DOE-EREC E-mail: doe. erec@nciinc. com

http:// www. eren. doe. gov / consumerinfо / refbriefs / db3.html

E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Technology Transfer Department

MS 90-1070

Berkeley, CA 94720

510-486-6467

Fax: 510-486-6457

http:/ /www. lbl. gov/

Dr. Arlon J. Hunt Advanced Energy Technology Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Road MS 70-108B,

Berkeley, CA 94720

510-486-5370

E-mail: AJHunt@lbl. gov

Brent Griffith

Infrared Thermography Laboratory Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Road Berkeley, CA 94720 510-486-6061

E-mail: BTGriffith@lbl. gov

Corina Stetiu Jump Quantum Consulting, Inc.

Berkeley CA 510-540-7200

Email: cjump@qcworld. com

Glacier Bay, Inc.

2845 Chapman St.

Oakland, CA. 94601 510-437-9100 Fax: 510-437-9200

Ingersoll-Rand Company Compressed Air Magazine 253 E. Washington Ave.

Washington, NJ 07882

908-850-7840

Fax: 908-689-5580

http:11 www. ingersoll-rand. com /compair/ julyaug96/aero. htm

Vacuum Insulation Association

William H. Werst, Jr., Executive Director

1600 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 901

Arlington, VA 22209

703-516-4506

Fax: 703-812-8743

Email: staff@vacuuminsulate. org

http:// www. vacuuminsulate. org /

VacuPanel, Inc.

Chris Meyer, President

50 South Detroit Street

Xenia, OH 45385

937-376-8233

Fax: 937-376-2781

E-mail: vacupanel@erinet. com

http.7 / www. vacupanel. com /

References

1. Aerogel Research at NASA/Marshall, “Microgravity Science: Aerogel in Your House. The House of the Future?” Available at http://science. nasa. gov/ newhome / help / tutorials / house future, htm.

2. Center for Building Science News Newsletter, Fall, 1995. Available at http: / /eande. lbl. gov / CBS /NEWSLETTER /NL8 /Aerogel, html.

3. http://www. sgn. com/invent/extra/gel. html.

4. Arlon Hunt and Michael Ayers, “A Brief History of Silica Aerogels.” Available at http: / / eande. lbl. gov /ECS / aerogels / sahist. htm.

5. Douglas Page, “Aerogels: Much Ado About Nothing,” High Technology Careers Magazine. Available at http:/ /www. hightechcareers. com.

6. ©2000 About. com, Inc. See http://chemistry. about. com/education/chem- istry / library / weekly / aal20798a. htm? iam=mt.

7. “Optical Properties of Silica Aerogels,” Microstructured Materials Group at Berkeley Lab Web site: http:7 /eande. lbl. gov/ECS/aerogels/saoptic. htm.

8. “Aerogel for Thermal Insulation,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

9. Kennedy/Jenks Consultants, http:/ /www. kennedyjenks. com/.

10. Veronica Lanier, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California for the U. S. Department of Energy: http://www. llnl. gov/ IPandC / op96/ 07/ 7a-aer. html.

11. Arlon Hunt, email correspondence with Rick Bynum, E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

12. Ingersoll-Rand Company, Compressed Air Magazine.

13. “Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs): Principles, Performance and Lifespan.” Available at http:/ /www. glacierbay. com/vacpanelinfo. htm.

14. Hunter Fanney, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

15. http:/ /gfp. lbl. gov/performance/default. htm.

16. Brent Griffith, “Gas-Filled Panels: An Update on Applications in the Building Thermal Envelope,” Alaska Building Science News 4(2), 1998.

17. Helmut Feustel and Corina Stetiu (Jump), “Thermal Performance of Phase – Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling,” CBS Newsletter (Fall 1997): 6. Available at http:/ /eande. lbl. gov f CBS f NEWSLETTER INL16 f Phase. html.

18. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC): http: / / www. eren. doe. gov / consumerinfo / refbriefs / db3.html.

Appendix

A

Miscellaneous Figures and Tables

Chapter #

Method of Installation

Type

R-value per inch

Approximate Cost (Contractor installed)

4

Vapr and Air Retarders

Polyethylene Vapor Retarder

N/A

4 mil; $0.10 per square foot

Polyethylene Vapor Retarder

N/A

6 mil; $0,10 per square foot

Asphalt Felt, 15#

N/A

$0.10 per square foot

Polypropylene Housewrap

N/A

$0.18 per square foot

7

Loose – Fill (Pour or Blown)

Cellulose

3.2-3.8

$1,81 per cubic foot

Expanded Polystyrene

4,0

$3.20 per cubic foot

Fiber glass

2.2-4.0

$1.63 per cubic foot

Perlite

2.7

$2.91 per cubic foot

Rock Wool

2.5 -3.1

$1.64 per cubic foot

Vermiculite

2.1 -3.0

$ 2.91 per cubic foot

Sawdust

2.2

N/A

Slag Wool

2.2 -3.0

$1.64 per cubic foot

8

Blankets: Batts or Rolls

Cotton

3.0 -4.3

Fiber glass

3.0-3.8

3 1/2" thick. Kraft faced, $0.37 per square foot

5 1/2" thick, unfaced., $0.51 per square foot

Rock Wool

3.0-3.7

3 1/2" thick, Kraft faced, $0.40 per square foot

Plastic Fiber

3.8-4.3

Chapter #

Method of Installation

Type

R-value per Inch

Approximate Cost (Contractor installed)

9

Sprayed-in-Place

Air Krete

3,9

BIBS (Blow-in-Blanket System)

4.0

DS Fiber Glass

4.0-4.27

Wet spray Cellulose

3.5 – 3.8

Wet spray Rock Wool

4.1

10

Foamed-in-Place

Air Krete

3.9

Icynene

3.6-4.0

Closed Cell Phenolic

8.0

Open cell Phenolic

4.4

Polyisocyanurate

5.8- 6.2

Polyurethane

5.8 – 6.2

Open cell Polyurethane

3.6 – 3.8

Tripolymer

4.6

UFFI

4.2

Figure A.2 Quick reference insulation chart. (R. S. Means Residential Cost Data-1999)

Chapter #

Method of Installation

Type

R-value per inch

Approximate Cost (Contractor installed)

11

Rigid Board

Cellular Glass

2.63

Expanded Polystyrene (EPS)

3.6 – 4.4

$0.49 per square foot, 1" thick board

Extruded Polystyrene (XPS)

5.0

$0.67 per square foot, 1" thick board

Polyurethane Foam

5.6

Polyisocyanurate Board Foil faced

7.0 -8.0

$0.70 per square foot, 1" thick board

Polyisocyanurate Board – Un-faced

56-6.2

Fiber glass

3.5-4.4

$0.51 per square foot, 1” thick board

Fiberboard Sheathing Blackboard

2.6

Phenolic Foam

8.3

Cane Fiberboard

2.5

Perlite

2.8

$0.61 per square foot, 1" thick board

12

Radiant Barriersand Reflective Insulation Systems

Foil faced polyethylene bubbles

$0.46 per square foot

Foil faced cardboard

Foil faced plastic film

$0.29 per square foot

EPA’s Recommended Recovered Materials Content Levels
for Building Insulation1

Product

Material

Postconsumer Content (%)

Total Recovered Materials Content (%)

Rock Wool

Slag

75

Fiberglass

Glass

Cullet

20-25

Cellulose Loose-Fill and Spray-On

Postconsumer

Paper

75

75

Perlite Composite Board

Postconsumer

Paper

23

23

Plastic Rigid Foam,

Polyisocyanurate/

Polyurethane:

Rigid Foam

9

Foam-in-Place

5

Glass Fiber Reinforced

6

Phenolic Rigid Foam

5

Plastic, Non-Woven Batt

Recovered

and/or

Postconsumer

Plastics

100

‘The recommended recovered materials content levels are based on the weight (not volume) of materials in the insulating core only.

Figure A.4 Material content recovered or diverted from solid waste. (EPA)

Permeability of Materials to Water Vapor (Perms) Material Perms

Vapor Retarders

Aluminum foil, 1 – mil

0.0

Polyethylene plastic film. 4-mil

0.08

Polyethylene plastic film. 6-mil

0.06

Kraft and asphalt building paper

0.3

Two coats of aluminum paint (in varnish)

on wood

0.3-0.5

Two coats exterior

0.9

Three coats latex

5.5- 11.0

Common building materials

Housewrap type air retarder

Expanded polyurethane, Г

1.5-5.0

Extruded polystyrene, 1"

1.1- 1.6

Polyisocyanurate

2-3

Tar felt building paper, 15-lb.

4.0

Insulation board, uncoated, 1/2"

50.0- 90.0

3-ply exterior plywood, 1/4"

0.7

3-ply interior plywood, 1/4"

1.9

Gypsum Wallboard, 3/8”

50

Brick masonry, 4"

0.8

Plaster, V*

15.0

Poured concrete wall, 4"

0.8

Glazed tile masonry, 4"

0.12

Concrete block, 8"

2.4

Figure A.5 Permeability of materials to water vapor.

Emissivity of Building Materials

Material

Emissivity

Anodize Black Coating

0.88

Carbon Black Paint NS-7

0.88

3M Black Velvet Paint

0.91

Catalac White Paint

0.90

Sherwin Williams White Paint

0.87

Brilliant Aluminum Paint

0.31

Epoxy Aluminum Paint

0.81

Finch Aluminum Paint

0.23

Anodized Aluminum

Black

0.82

Blue

0.87

Brown

0.86

Clear

0.76

Green

0.88

Gold

0.82

Plain

0.04

Blue Anodized Titanium Foil

0.13

Aluminum

Highly Polished

0.039-0.057

Commercial Sheet

0.09

Heavily Oxidized

0.20-0.31

Surface Roofing

0.216

3M Aluminum Foil

0.03

Brass

Highly Polished

0.028-0.037

Dull Plate

0.22

Buffed Copper

0.03

Constantan-Metal Strip

0.09

Buffed Aluminum

0.03

Polished Copper

0.023

Thick Oxide Layer Copper

0.78

Steel, Polished

0.066

Stainless Steel

Polished

0.11

Machined

0.14

Sandblasted

0.38

Boom-Polished

0.10

Vapor Deposited Coatings

Aluminum

0.02

Aluminum on Fiberglass 0.07

Aluminum on Stainless Steel 0.02

Identifying Old Insulation

Material

Description

R-Value (

Asbestos

Mixed with other insulation materials; requires testing

1

Fiberglass blanket

Pink, yellow, or white

3.2

Loose-fill cellulose

Shredded newspaper, gray, "dusty"

3.5

Loose-fill fiberglass

Pink, yellow, or white loose fibrous material

2.2

Loose-fill rockwool

Denser than fiberglass, "wooly", usually grey with black specks (some newer products are usually white)

2.9

Perlite

White or yellow granules

2.7

UFFI

Whitish grey or yellow, very brittle foam

4

Vermiculite

Gray or brown granules

2.2

Wood products

Sawdust, redwood bark, balsa wood

1

Note: R-values are for old insulation only. They take into account settling as well as r-values for old materials that may have changed with new products.

Figure A.7 Identifying old insulation. (Home Energy Magazine)

2×4 Wood Stud Partition

2×4 wood studs 16" o. c. CertainTeed ЗА" (R-15) Fiber Glass Batts

A” regular gypsum wallboard

 

2×4 Wood Stud Resilient Channel Partition

2×4 wood studs 16" o. c. CertainTeed 3’A" CertaSound Batts

Resilient channels 24" o. c. one side %" type “X" gypsum wallboard

 

STC 50

Fire Rating 1 hr.

 

Double Wood Stud Partition

2×4 wood studs 16" o. c. (double row)

Separate 2×4 wood plates CertainTeed ЗА" CertaSound Batts all stud spaces A" regular gypsum wallboard

 

Exterior Wood Stud Wall

2×4 wood studs 16" o. c. CertainTeed ЗА” CertaSound Batts

Interior: regular gypsum

wallboard

Exterior: A" gypsum sheathing A" exterior plywood

 

STC 57

Fire Rating 1 hr.

 

Steel Stud Partitions

2’A" or 3%" steel studs 24" o. c. CertainTeed 2’A" or ЗА" CertaSound Batts %" type X” gypsum wallboard

 

Steel Stud Partitions

2A" steel studs 24" o. c. CertainTeed 2A" CertaSound Batts

2 layers A" type "X” gypsum wallboard each side

 

Product description

Fire Rating 1 hr.

 

Product descriptionProduct descriptionProduct descriptionProduct descriptionProduct description

Product description

2×4 Wood Stud Partition

2×4 wood studs 24" o. c. CertainTeed 3’A" CertaSound Batts

2 layers %" type “X gypsum wallboard each side

 

Staggered Wood Stud Partition

2×4 wood studs staggered 16" o. c.

2×6 wood plates CertainTeed 2^" CertaSound Batts all stud spaces A" regular gypsum wallboard

 

2УГ & 3%" Steel Stud Partitions

2’A" or 3%" steel studs 24" o. c. CertainTeed 2X or 3’A" CertaSound Batts X regular gypsum wallboard

 

Exterior Wood Stud Wall

2×4 wood studs 16" o. c. CertainTeed 3#’CertaSound Batts

Interior: resilient channel X type “X” gypsum wallboard

Exterior: V" gypsum sheathing X exterior plywood

 

Product description

Fire Rating 1 hr.

 

STC 45 w/2!*" studs STC 47 w/3%" studs

 

Floor/Ceiling Construction

Wood Joists 16" o. c. CertainTeed 3Vi" CertaSound Batts

Resilient channel X type “X" gypsum wallboard X plywood subfloor X particle board underlayment Carpet & pad

 

Floor/Ceiling Construction

Wood Joists 16" o. c. CertainTeed 3’X CertaSound Batts

Resilient channel

V" type “X" gypsum wallboard

X plywood subfloor

IX cellular or light weight

concrete

Carpet & pad

 

Product description

IIC 73

Fire Rating 1 hr.

 

Product description

IIC 73

Fire Rating 1 hr.

 

Product descriptionProduct descriptionProduct description

Product description

Product description

Подпись:Ceilings below Floors over 2×4

Подпись: Insuhtion 2Un« Подпись: Electric Gas, oil, or resistance beat pump Подпись: All fut l types Подпись: All furl types

cntilated unheated crawl spaces, exterior attics basements waits

3

Product description

Подпись: R-13 or R-ll R-19 R-19 R-13 or К-11 R-19 R-19 R-13 or R-ll R-19 R 19 R-13 or R-ll R-19 R-19 R-13 of R-11 R 19 R 19 R-13 or K-ll R 19 R-19 R -13 or R -11 R 19 R-19 K-l3or R-ll R-19 R-ll Подпись:Подпись: ІОООІІR 38

4 R 38

4 R 38

6 R-38

7 R-30

8 R-30

Figure A.10 Recommended R-values and fuel types. (U. S. Department of Energy)

R-value

Material Description

Density

(Ib/ft3)

Per-Inch

Thickness

For Listed Thickness

Building Boards, Panels, Flooring Gypsum or plaster board, 1 in

50

0.32

Gypsum or plaster board, J in.

50

0.45

Gypsum or piaster board, S in.

50

0.56

Plywood {Douglas Fir)

34

1.25

Plywood or wood panels, 3 in.

34

0.93

Hardboard, medium density

50

1.37

Particle board Low density

37

1.85

Medium density

50

1.06

High density

62.5

0.85

Wood subfloor, 3 in.

0.94

Finish Flooring Materials Carpet and rubber pad

1.23

Cork tile, 1 in.

0.28

Terrazzo, 1 in.

0.08

Tile—asphalt, linoleum, vinyl, rubber

0.05

Wood, hardwood finish. Ї in.

0.68

Insulating Materials See Appendix A Masonry Materials—Concretes Cement mortar

116

0.20

Gypsum-fiber concrete

87.5% gypsum, 12.5% wood chips

51

0.60

Lightweight aggregates including expanded shale, clay or slate; expanded slags; cinders; pumice, vermiculite; also cellular concretes (by density)

120

0.19

_

100

0.28

80

0.40

60

0.59

_

40

0.86

_

20

1.43

Sand and gravel or stone aggregate oven dried

140

0.11

not dried

140

0.08

Stucco

116

0.20

Figure A.11 R-value of common building materials. (Clemson University)

R-vaJue

Material Description

Density

(lb/ft3)

Per-Inch

Thickness

For Listed Thickness

Masonry Units

Brick, common

120

0.20

Brick, face

130

Oil

Concrete blocks, rectangular core Sand and gravel aggregate

2 core, 8 in., 36 lb.

1.04

same with filled cores

__

1.93

Lightweight aggregate (expanded shale, slate or slag, pumice)

3 core, 6 in., 19 lb.

1.65

same with filled cores

_

2.99

2 core, 8 in., 24 lb

__

2.18

same with filled cores

5.03

3 core, 12 in., 38 lb.

2.48

same with filled cores

_

5.82

Stone, lime or sand

0.08

Plastering Materials

Cement plaster, sand aggregate

116

0.20

Sand aggregate, і in.

0.08

Sand aggregate, 3 in.

0.15

Gypsum plaster

Lightweight aggregate, і in.

45

0.32

Lightweight aggregate, і in.

45

0.39

Lightweight aggregate on metal lath, 3 in.

0.47

Perlite aggregate

45

0.67

Sand aggregate

105

0.18

Sand aggregate, 1 in.

105

__

0.09

Sand aggregate, | in.

105

0.И

Sand aggregate on metal lath, 3 in.

0.13

Vermiculite aggregate

45

0.59

Roofing Materials

Asbestos-cement shingles

120

__

0.21

Asphalt roll roofing

70

__

0.15

Asphalt shingles

70

_

0.44

Built-up roofing, 3 in.

70

0.33

Slate, І

0.05

Wood shingles

__

0.94

Siding Materia/s Shingles

Wood, 16 in., 7.5 exposure

0.87

Wood, double, 16 in., 12 in. exposure

1.19

Siding

Asphalt roll siding Hardboard siding, A in.

40

0.15

0.67

Wood, drop, 1 x 8 in.

__

0.79

Wood, bevel, £ x 8 in., lapped

_

0.81

Wood, bevel, 3 x 10 in., lapped

1.05

Wood, plywood, 3 in., lapped

0.59

Aluminum or steel, over sheathing

0.61

Woods

Maple, oak, and similar hardwoods

45

0.91

__

Fir, pine, etc.

32

1.25

__

………………………………………………….. 3 in.

32

__

0 94

………………………………………………… 1.5 in.

32

__

1.88

………………………………………………… 5.5 in.

32

7.14

Figure A.12 R-value of common building materials. (Clemson University)

AIR SURFACES

Type of Surface

Position of

Direction

of

Non-Reflective

Materials

Reflective Aluminum Coated Paper

Highly

Reflective

Foil

Surface

Heat Flow

Resistance (R)

Resistance (R)

Resistance fR>

STILL AIR Horizontal

Upward

0.61

1.10

1.32

45° slope

Upward

0.62

1.14

1.37

Vertical

Horizontal

0.68

1.35

1.70

45° slope

Down

0.76

1.67

2.22

Horizontal

Down

0.92

2.70

4.55

MOVING AIR (any position) 15 mph wind

Any

0.17 (winter)

7Vi mph wind

Any

0.25 (summer)

AIR SPACES

Position of Air Space and Thickness (inches)

Heat

Flow

Dir.

Season

Types of Surfaces on Opposite Sides

Both Surfaces Non-Reflective Materials

Aluminum Coated Paper/

Non-Reflective

Materials

Foil/

Non-Reflective

Materials

Resistance (R)

Resistance (R)

Resistance (R)

Horizontal V*

Up

W

0.87

1.71

2.23

V*

S

0.76

1.63

2.26

4

W

0.94

1.99

2.73

4

s

0.80

1.87

2.75

45° slope 3A

Up

w

0.94

2.02

2.78

s

0.81

1.90

2.81

4

w

0.96

2.13

3.00

4

s

0.82

1.98

3.00

Vertical 3A

Down

w

1.01

2.36

3.48

3A

s

0.84

2.10

3.28

4

w

1.01

2.34

3.45

4

s

0.91

2.16

3.44

45° slope 3Л

Down

w

1.02

2.40

3.57

У-

s

0.84

2.09

3.24

4

w

1.08

2.75

4.41

4

s

0.90

2.50

4.36

Horizontal 3A

Down

w

1.02

2.39

3.55

1У2

w

1.14

3.21

5.74

4

w

1.23

4.02

8.94

V*

s

0.84

2.08

3.25

1У2

s

0.93

2.76

5.24

4

s

0.99

3.38

8.08

Figure A.13 Air R-values. (D. Richard Stroup)

Building Port

Construction Materials

R-value

Roof/Ceiling

Outside Air Film

0.17

Shingles

0.44

Building Paper

0.06

Plywool y2"

0.62

Attic Air Film

0.61

Insulation

19.00

Gypsum Board/ Y2"

0.45

Inside Air Film

0.61

Total R-value (Rt)

21.96

U-value (VRt)

0.045

Wall

Outside Air Film

0.17

Siding, Wood y2" x 8" Lapped

0.81

Sheathing, Plywood

0.62

Insulation

11.00

Interior Finish Gyp. Bd. y2"

0.45

Inside Air Film

0.68

Total R-value (Rt)

13.73

U-value (VRt)

0.073

Header Joist

Outside Air Film

0,17

Siding

0.81

Sheathing

0.62

Header, Wood t У2 "

1.88

Insulation

11.00

Inside Air Film

0.68

Total R-value (Rt)

15.16

U-value (VRt)

0.066

Sill

Outside Air Film

0.17

Siding

0.81

Sheathing

0.62

Sill — Wood 5Y2"

6.88

Inside Air Film

6.88

Total R-value (Rt)

9.16

U-value (VRT)

0.109

Foundation

Outside Air Film

0.17

Cone. Blk 8"

1.11

I nsulation

5.00

Interior Finish Gyp. Bd.

0.32

Inside Air Film

0.68

Total R-value (Rt)

7.28

U-value (VRt)

0.137

Figure A.14 Typical R – and U-value calculations. (Harold B. Olin, AIA)

Product description

SOLAR INTENSITY AND SOLAR HEAT GAIN FACTORS FOR 4Q°N LATITUDE

SOLAR

TIME

DIRECT

SOLAR

HEAT GAIN FACTORS (BTUH/SQ FT)

SOLAR

TIME

DATE

(A. M.)

(BTUH/SQ FT)

N

E

s

w

HOR

(P. M.)

Jan 21

8

142

5

111

75

5

14

4

10

274

16

124

213

16

96

2

12

294

20

21

254

21

133

12

Feb 21

8

219

10

183

94

10

43

4

10

294

21

143

203

21

143

2

12

307

24

25

241

25

180

12

Mar 21

8

250

16

218

74

16

85

4

10

297

25

153

171

25

186

2

12

307

29

31

206

31

223

12

Apr 21

6

89

11

88

5

5

11

6

8

252

22

224

41

21

123

4

10

286

31

152

121

31

217

2

12

293

34

36

154

36

252

12

May 21

6

144

36

141

10

10

31

6

8

250

27

220

29

25

146

4

10

277

34

148

83

34

234

2

12

284

37

40

113

40

265

12

June 21

6

155

48

151

13

13

40

6

8

246

30

216

29

27

153

4

10

272

35

145

69

35

238

2

12

279

38

41

95

41

267

12

Jul 21

6

138

37

137

11

11

32

6

8

241

28

216

30

26

145

4

10

269

35

146

81

35

231

2

12

276

38

41

109

41

262

12

Aug 21

6

81

12

82

6

5

12

6

8

237

24

216

41

23

122

4

10

272

32

150

116

32

214

2

12

280

35

38

149

38

247

12

Sep 21

8

230

17

205

71

17

82

4

10

280

27

148

165

27

180

2

12

290

30

32

200

32

215

12

Oct 21

8

204

11

173

89

11

43

4

10

280

21

139

196

21

140

2

12

294

25

27

234

27

177

12

Nov 21

8

136

5

108

72

5

14

4

10

268

16

122

209

16

96

2

12

288

20

21

250

21

132

12

Dec 21

8

89

3

67

50

3

6

4

10

261

14

113

146

14

77

2

12

285

18

19

253

19

113

12

N

W

s

є

HOR

PM

Figure A.16 Solar heat gain factors: sample. {John I. Yellott)

Product description

Product description

95

 

90

мяЛ ——- J

 

Figure A.17 ASHRAE comfort envelope. (.Harold B. Olin, AIA)

 

Product description

Product descriptionProduct description

1. Wid|i did l*|* «it:twoik ліііі hi** уїл Лк*і wrap
2 • Patch nps oi teats m ^apoi retaideis before msialiinq ih* пт-гпг finish

Product description

3. Pack msiiiatiof tfttc small traces.’roind doors лпгі window throes tc hrip f hr mitt» cold spots (If jsinq faced

ІСйік)‘ЮП (H! f.l Off tfU! fxiny MViter Lfl

tefore filing in small areas)

4. Wrap *v3ter heater with a fiber gl*ss Water Fed’, сі Вігі Леї (Use f Ьиі ylrivs Wdle: Heater lop on ptertrr water rearers roly*]

Figure A.18 Miscellaneous insulation applications. (Owens Corning)

Product description

5. їЬй first step r an e*tenor wa I or sound control project is to seal all penetrations n tt«%f walls, such as those Icr c acti cut w re: and outlets, usi »g ar appJ’Cdt on of Owens Comrvq PtnkSeeJ foan sealant Лі y liaoe :lvit a* could lea*. thri*jqh is a place where scund could lee* lh’ їж/ also (Nine Du ivd use – ж; an. щ foam sealants arourd wvtiows and ooors because they might cause tamming or m salignment)
0. motion must be fitted proper у aroifd p’pes, wring, e ectncal bo*es and hear»rg due’s On ihc cirtonor walls the rsuiancn rust always be installed behind the water supply pipes There should be no gaps or spaces between insulation pieces T ч*е rte p arcs where cncrQv wot id be lost І; і the life of the house

Product descriptionProduct description

7. Instate col down «tBihfteys with fib»-‘ glass bionkct msu аНкя» laid лі and around a built-up tiaresvort Scuttle holes nan be nsulated jv attatfung г so аЬэп d*rectfy to tne board with ar adhesive

8. CauHu iij леї sealing a I penetrations car he p to stop a r mfi tvntnn

Figure A.19 Miscellaneous insulation applications. (Owens Corning)

Vbu shock! wrap at) ducts with insulating blankets At least two riches of msuiaton is des ‘atte If the supplier does nol have the two-mch torl- sacked duct insulation men you can use a com dinahon of V* unlaced (no foil) arc t" foil or vinyl backed duct insulation

Product description

Tape all duct joints and seams before you insu­late tne ducts to prevent any air leakage

Cut the insulation long enough to ha we a two – inch overlap of vapor barrier Ybu need this overlap to staple the insulation Place the vapor nerner (foil or viny side) away from the ducts

If your ducts already have some insulation check to see H any moisture has collected m it, If so. it would be best to replace t with new insulator But. if the ok! insulation >s stik m good cone*ton and you need to add more to gel the desired two-inch protection, be sure you make a number of slashes at si і inch intervals through the old foil vapor barrier before you add the new toa-backed insulator

Product description

Pullmensulaton snug, nor hgh; to reduce air pock – els if you puli the insulation tight you w ll reduce its insulating value

After you have wrapped the ducts, tape the edges of the various pieces of insulation with spectal duct tape This toil vapor ba*f«f л H keep moist air from reaching the cool ducts in summer and will protect the insulation f’om moisture damage Mote Remove part of the insulation cover toil and make sure it overlaps whe*e the two ends of insulation join logethe* Then after taping, staple the tape so it won t come loose and seal the boles made from stapling with insulaton tape

Figure A.20 HVAC duct insulation. (Edison Electric Institute)

Duct Insulation R-Value Requirements

 

Zone

Number

Ducts in Unconditioned Spaces (i. e. Attics, Crawl Spaces, Unheated Basements and Garages, and Exterior Cavities)

Ducts Outside the Building

Zones 1-4

R-5

R-8

Zones 5-14

R-5

R-6.5

Zone 15-19

R-5

R-8

Figure A.21 Duct insulation. (1995 Model Energy Code)

 

Minimum Insulation Thickness for HVAC Pipes(l)

Fluid

Temp

Range

CF)

Insulation Thickness in Inches by Pipe Sizes***

Piping System Types

Runouts 2 In «

1 in. and

Less

1.25 in. to 2 in.

2.5 in. to 4 in.

Heating Systems

Low Press ure/Tcmperatu re

201-250

1.0

1.5

1.5

2.0

Low Temperature

120-200

0.5

L0

1.0

1.5

Steam Condensate (for feed water)

Any

1.0

1.0

1.5

2.0

Cooling Systems

Chilled Water

40-55

0.5

0.5

0.75

1.0

(a) The pipe insulation thicknesses specified in this table are based on insulation R-values ranging from R-4 to R-4.6 per inch of thickness. For materials with an R-value greater than R-4.6, the insulation thickness specified in this table may be reduced as follows:

 

New Minimum Thickness – 4 6 * Tab’! Thickn8SS

Actual R-Value

For materials with an R value less than R-4, the minimum insulation thickness must be increased as follows:

New Minimum Thickness – 4’° * Tabl* Thickness

Actual R-Value

(b) For piping exposed to outdoor air, increase thickness by 0.5 in.

(c) Applies to runouts not exceeding 12 ft in length to individual terminal units.

 

Figure A.22 Insulation thickness for HVAC piping. (1995 Model Energy Code)

 

Minimum Insulation Thickness for Circulating Hot Water Pipes

Insulation Thickness in Inches by Pipe Sizes(,)

Heated Water Temperature

Non-Circulating

Runouts

Circulating Mains and Runouts

(°F)

Up to 1 in.

Up to 1.25 in.

1.5-2.0 in.

Over 2 in.

170-180

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

140-160

0.5

0.5

1.0

1.5

100-130

0.5

0.5

0.5

1.0

(a) Nominal pipe size and insulation thickness.

Figure A.23 Insulation thickness for hot-water piping. (1995 Model Energy Code)

Product description

In addition, you might want to investigate a rela­tively inexpensive water heater insulation kit. Hot water tanks (except super-insulated tanks) gen­erally are not insulated very well, so an extra layer of protection will keep the heat from being lost through the walls of the tank. sure to read

the instructions on the kit carefully, especially for directions on keeping uncovered any doors, vents or relief valves. This is especially true for gas and oil-fired water heaters—a proper mixture of additional air with combustion or exhaust gases is needed to assist in the safe passage of combustion products to the outside. For instance on gas-fired water heaters, the draft hood on the vent pipe should be kept free of blockage. If your hot water piping runs any long distances and is exposed, you probably are losing expensive heat from your hot water system. You can wrap the pipes with thermal tape and eliminate this wasted energy.

Figure A.24 Water heater insulation. {Edison Electric Institute)

Air Leakage

Joints, penetrations, and all other such openings in the building envelope that are sources of air leakage must be caulked, gasketed, weatherstripped, or otherwise sealed. The maximum leakage rates for manufactured windows and doors are shown on the reverse side. Recessed lights must be type IC rated and installed with no penetrations or installed inside an appropriate airtight assembly with a 0.5-in. clearance from combustible materials and Э-in. clearance from insulation.

Vapor Retarder

Vapor retarders must be installed cm the warm-in-winter side of all non-vented framed ceilings, walls, and floors. This requirement does not apply to the following locations nor where moisture or its freezing will not damage the materials.

• Texas Zones 2-5

• Alabama, Georgia, N. Carolina, Oklahoma, S. Carolina Zones 4-6

• Arkansas, Tennessee Zones 6-7

• Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi All Zones

Materials and

Insulation

Information

Materials and equipment must be identified so that compliance can be determined. Manufacturer manuals for all installed heating and cooling equipment and service water heating equipment must be provided. Insulation R-values, glazing and door U-values, and heating and cooling equipment efficiency (if high-efficiency credit is taken) must be clearly marked on the building plans or specifications.

Duct Insulation

Supply and return ducts for heating and cooling systems located in unconditioned spaces must be insulated to the levels shown on the reverse side of this sheet.

Exceptions: Insulation is not required for exhaust air ducts, ducts within HVAC equipment, and when the design temperature difference between the air in the duct and the surrounding air is 15°F or less.

Duct

Construction

Ducts must be sealed using mastic with fibrous backing tape. For fibrous ducts, pressure-sensitive tape may be used. Other sealants may be approved by the building official. Duct tape is not permitted. The HVAC system must provide a means for balancing air and water systems.

Temperature

Controls

Thermostats are required for each separate HVAC system in single-family buildings and each dwelling unit in multifamily buildings (non-dwelling portions of multi family buildings must have one thermostat for each system or zone). Thermostats must have the following ranges:

Heating Only 55°F – 75°F Cooling Only 70°F – 85°F Heating and Cooling 55°F – 85°F A manual or automatic means to partially restrict or shut off the heating and/or cooling input to each zone or floor shall be provided for single-family homes and to each room for multifamily buildings.

HVAC Piping Insulation

HVAC piping in unconditioned spaces conveying fluids at temperatures above 120°F or chilled fluids at less than 55°F must be insulated to the levels shown on the reverse side of this sheet.

Swimming

Pools

All heated swimming pools must have an on/off pool heater switch. Heated pools require a pool cover unless over 20% of the heating energy is from non-depletable sources. All swimming pool pumps must be equipped with a time clock.

Circulating Hot Water

Circulating hot water systems must have automatic or manual controls and pipes must be insulated to the levels shown on the reverse side of this sheet.

Electric Systems

Each multi family dwelling unit must be equipped with separate electric meters.

Figure A.25 1995 Model energy code basic requirements. (1995 Model Energy Code)

Requirement Installed fY/Ш Comments

Pre-Inspection

• Approved Building Plans on Site {104.1)

Foundation Inspection Inspection Date______________ Approved: Yes

• Slab-Edge Insulation (502.2.1.4) ___________________ _______________ Depth:

• Basement Wall Exterior Insulation (502.2.1.6) —————————– ———————– Depth:

• Crawl Space Wall Insulation (502.2.1.5) ___________________ _______________ Depth:

Framing Inspection Inspection Date______________ Approved: Yes

• Floor Insulation (502.2.1.3) ___________________ _______________ _________________

• Glazing and Door Area (502.2.1.1) —————————– ———————– ————————–

• Mass Walls (502.1.2) ___________________ _______________ _________________

• Caulking/Sealing Penetrations (502.4.3) ___________________ _______________ _________________

• Duct Insulation (503.9.1) ___________________ _______________ _________________

• Duct Construction (503.10.2) ___________________ _______________ _________________

• HVAC Piping Insulation (503.11) ___________________ _______________ _________________

• Circulating Hot-Water Piping Insulation (504.7) ___________________ _______________ _________________

Insulation Inspection inspection Date_____________________ Approved: Yes

• Wall Insulation (502.2.1,1) ___________________ _______________ ___________

• Basement Walt Interior Insulation (502.2.1.6) ___________________ _______________ Depth:

• Ceiling Insulation (502.2.1.2) ___________________ _______________ ___________

• Glazing and Door U-Values (502.2.1.1) ___________________ _______________ ___________

• Vapor Retarder (502.1.4) ___________________ _______________ ___________

Final Inspection Inspection Date_____________________ Approved: Yes

• Heating Equipment (102.1)

Make and Model Number ___________________ _______________ _________________

Efficiency (AFUE or HSPF) ___________________ _______________ _________________

– Cooling Equipment (102.1)

Make and Model Number ___________________ _______________ _________________

Efficiency (SEER) ___________________ _______________ _________________

• Multifamiiy Units Separately Metered (505.2) ___________________ _______________ _________________

• Thermostats for Each System (503.8.3) ___________________ _______________ _________________

• Heat Pump Thermostat (503.4.2.3) ___________________ _______________ _________________

• Window and Door Air Leakage (502.4,2) ___________________ _______________ _________________

• Weatherstripping at Doors/Windows (502.4.3) ___________________ _______________ _________________

– Equipment Maintenance Information (102.2) ___________________ _______________ _________________

Figure A.26 MEC field inspection checklist. (1995 Model Energy Code)

Appendix

В

Directory of Manufacturers, Suppliers, and Associations

The information contained within this directory has been obtained from an extensive list of sources during the research for this book. This directory is not intended to be an all-inclusive source; howev­er, the information is presented as a service to the reader and to facilitate further research or education. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the material. The authors and the pub­lisher will not accept any liability for omissions or errors.

Manufacturer’s Associations

Blow-in-Blanket Contractors Association (ВІВСА)

1051 Kennel Drive Rapid City, SD 57701 800-451-8862 Email: info@bibca. org http://www. bibca. org

Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association (СІМА)

136 South Keowee Street Dayton, OH 45402 937-222-2462 Fax: 937-222-5794

Central States Insulation and Abatement Contractors Association

136 South Keowee Street

Dayton, OH 45402

937-222-1024

Fax: 937-222-5794

Eastern States Insulation Contractors Association

2250 Hickory Road, Suite 100

Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462

610-940-4999

Fax: 610-940-4994

EPS Molders Association 2128 Espey Court Suite 4

Crofton, MD 21114 800-607-3772 410-451-8341 Fax: 410-451-8343 Email: bdecampo@aol. com http:/ /www. epsmolders. org/

Home Ventilating Institute 30 West University Drive Arlington Heights, IL 60004 847-394-0150 Fax: 847-253-0088

Institute for Research in Construction

National Research Council of Canada

Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6

613-993-2607

Fax: 613-952-7673

Email: Ire. Client-Services@nrc. ca

Insulating Concrete Form Association 960 Harlem Avenue, Suite 1128 Glenview, IL 60025 847-657-9730 Fax: 847-657-9728

Insulation Contractors Association of America 1321 Oak Street Alexandria, VA 22314 703-739-0356

National Association of Home Builders (NAHB)

1201 15th Street NW Washington, DC 20005 202-822-0200

North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA)

44 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 310

Alexandria, VA 22314

703-684-0084

Fax: 703-684-0427

http:/ /www. naima. org

Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association (PIMA)

1331 F Street, NW, Suite 975

Washington, DC 20004

202-628-6558

Fax: 202-628-3856

Email: pima@pima. org

http: / / www. pima. org / contactus. html

Reflective Insulation Manufacturers Association P O. Box 90955 Washington, DC 20090 800-279-4123

Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.

1801 К Street NW, Suite 600K Washington, DC 20006-1301 202-974-5200 Fax: 202-296-7005

Spray Polyurethane Foam Division 1275 К Street NW Washington, DC 20005 800-523-6154

Southeastern Insulation Contractors Association

101 Pinehurst Drive

Franklin, TN 37064

615-662-2871

Fax: 615-662-2871

Southwest Insulation Contractors Association

P O. Box 570353

Houston, TX 77257

713-977-0909

Fax: 713-781-1321

Structural Insulated Panel Association 3413 A 56th Street NW Gig Harbor, WA 98335 253-858-SIPA (7472)

Fax: 253-858-0272 Email: staff@sips. org http:/ /www. sips. org/

Thermal Insulation Association of Canada 371A Richmond Road, Unit 8 Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2A 0E7 613-724-4834 Fax: 613-724-4943

Thermal Insulation Manufacturer’s Association 29 Bank Street Stamford, CT 06901 203-224-3930

The Perlite Institute Inc.

88 New Dorp Plaza Staten Island, NY 10306-2994 Tel: 718-351-5723 Fax: 718-351-5725 http:// www. perlite. org /

The Vermiculite Association Whitegate Acre Metheringham Fen Lincoln, LN4 3AL UK +44 1526 323990 Fax: +44 1526 323181 Email: tva@vermiculite. org

Western Insulation Association 669 South 200 East Salt Lake City, UT 84111 801-364-0050

Fax: 801-531-7725

Reference Sources

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service

P O. Box 8900

Silver Spring, MD 20907

800-523-2929

Electric Power Research Institute P O. Box 10412 Palo Alto, CA 94303 415-855-2000

Florida Solar Energy Center State University System of Florida,

300 State Road 401

Cape Canaveral, FL 32920-4099

Institute for Research in Construction

National Research Council of Canada

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0R6

613-993-2607

Fax: 613-952-7673

Email: Ire. Client-Services@nrc. ca

NAHB Research Center HomeBase Hotline

400 Prince George’s Boulevard Upper Marlboro, MD 20774-8731 800-638-8556

http://www. nahbrc. org

National Institute of Building Sciences 1201 L Street NW, Suite 400 Washington, DC 20005 202-289-7800 Fax: 202-289-1092

Southface Energy Institute 241 Pine Street Atlanta, GA 30308 404-872-3549 Fax: 404-872-5009 http://www. southface. org

U. S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161

U. S. Department of Energy

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearing House (EREC)

P. O. Box 3048

Merrifield, VA 22116

800-363-3732

Fax: 703-893-0400

U. S. Department of Energy

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

P. O. Box 62

Oak Ridge, TN 37831

423-576-2268

423-576-840

U. S. Department of Energy

National Appropriate Technology Assistance Service P. O. Box 2525 Butte, MT 59702-2525 800-428-2525

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division APPD

401 M Street, Mail Code 6202J SW Washington, DC 20460 888-STAR-YES

Energy Star fact sheets Builder guides

Model Energy Code

Council of American Building Officials

5203 Leesburg Pike

Falls Church, VA 22041

703-931-4533

ASHRAE Standard 90.2-1993

“Energy-Efficient Design of New Low-Rise Residential Buildings”

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 1791 Tullie Circle, NE Atlanta, GA 30329

Manufacturers Air retarders

ASTRO-FOIL Innovative Energy

10653 W. 181st Avenue

Lowell, IN 46356

800-776-3645

219-696-3639

Fax: 800-551-3645

Email: ie@astrofoil. com

http:/ /www. insul. net/common. html

Celotex Corporation One Metro Center 4010 Boy Scout Blvd.

Tampa, FL 33607 813-873-4000 Fax: 813-873-4430

Dryvit Systems House Wrap 1 Energy Way West Warwick, RI 02893 800-556-7752

Du Pont

Tyvek House Wrap Chestnut Run Plaza Laurel Run Wilmington, DE 19808 800-448-9835

Foam Enterprises, Inc.

13630 Watertower Cir.

Dept. AR

Minneapolis, MN 55441-3785 888-900-FOAM (3626)

612-559-9390 Fax: 612-559-0945

Innovative Energy 10653 W. 181st Avenue Lowell, IN 46356-9451 800-776-3645 219-696-3639 Fax: 219-696-5220

Owens Corning World Headquarters One Owens Corning Pky.

Toledo, OH 43659

800-GET-PINK

Fax: 419-248-7506

Email: answers@owenscorning. com

http://www. owenscorning. com

Pactive Corporation

(formerly Amocor, Amofoam, Tenneco)

2100 River Edge Parkway

Suite 175

Atlanta, GA 30328

800-222-7339

678-589-7337

Fax: 678-589-7325

http:/ /www. tennecobuildingprod. com/index. html

W. R. Meadows, Inc.

300 Industrial Drive P O. Box 338

Hampshire, IL 60140-0338 800-342-5976 847-683-4500 Fax: 847-683-4544

Cellulose

Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association (СІМА)

136 South Keowee Street

Dayton, OH 45402

937-222-2462

Fax: 937-222-5794

Applegate Insulation Mfg., Inc. 1000 Highview Drive Webberville, MI 48892 800-627-7536 517-521-3545 Fax: 517-521-3597

Central Fiber Corporation 4814 Fiber Lane Wells ville, KS 66092 800-654-6117 785-883-4600 Fax: 785-883-4429

Central Fiber Corporation 1525 Waynesburg Drive, S. E.

(Route 43 South)

Canton, OH 44707 216-452-2630 Fax: 216-452-2644

Energy Control, Inc.

804 W. Mill Street Ossian, IN 46777 219-622-7614 Fax: 219-622-7604 800-451-6429

Email: dbell29499@aol. com

Greenfiber L. L.C. (Greenstone Industries, Inc.)

Corporate Office

6500 Rock Spring Drive

Suite 400

Bethesda, MD 20817

888-592-7684

301-564-5900

Fax: 402-379-2780

http://www. greenstone. com

West Coast Administration 3264 Villa Lane Napa, CA 94558 707-256-0715 Fax: 707-256-0719

Hamilton Manufacturing, Inc.

901 Russet Street Twin Falls, ID 83301 208-733-9689 Fax: 208-733-9447 Email: info@hmi-mfg. com http.7 /www. hmi-mfg. com

Insul-Tray, Inc.

P. O. Box 3111 Redmond, WA 98073-3111 425-861-0525

International Cellulose Corporation P. O. Box 450006 12315 Robin Blvd.

Houston, TX 77245-0006

800- 444-1252 713-433-6701 Fax: 713-433-2029 Email: Icc@Spray-On. com http:/ /www. spray-on. com

National Fiber 50 Depot Street Belchertown, MA 01007-9619 413-283-8747 Fax: 413-283-2462

Nu-Wool Insulation Co., Inc.

2472 Port Sheldon Street

Jenison, MI 49428

616-669-0100

Fax: 616-669-2370

Email: mjhenderson@Nuwool. com

http://www. nuwool. com

Redi-Therm Insulation 3061 South 3600 West Salt Lake City, UT 84119

801- 972-6551 Fax: 801-972-6573

Tascon Inc.

P. O. Box 41846 Houston, TX 77241 800-937-0900

Thermocon Inc.

2500 Jackson Street

Monroe, LA 71202

Sales: 800-532-6145

913-383-0909

Fax: 913-383-3345

Plant: 800-854-1907

318-323-1337

Fax: 318-323-1338

http.7 /www. thermocon. com

U. S. Fiber, Inc.

19321 U. S Highway 19 N, Building C Suite 415

Clearwater, FL 33764 813-524-7575 Fax: 813-524-8558

Manufacturing Locations:

Phoenix, AZ 602-254-5585 Tampa, FL 800-666-4824 Ronda, NC 800-992-2468 Delphos, OH 419-692-7015 Portland, OR 503-653-0063

Cementitious Foam Insulation

Air-Krete P. O. Box 380

Weedsport, NY 13166-0380 315-834-6609 Email: info@airkrete. com http.7 /www. airkrete. com

Air Krete

Palmer Industries, Inc.

10611 Old Annapolis Road Frederick, MD 21701 301-898-7848

Coatings

INSULADD Tech Traders, Inc.

307 Holly Road Vero Beach, FL 32963 888-748-5233 Fax: 561-231-5233 Email: info@insuladd. com http.7 /www. insuladd. com

Nationwide Chemical Coating Mfrs., Inc.

6067 17th Street East

Bradenton, FL 34203-5002

800-423-7264

941-753-7500

Fax: 941-753-1773

Email: natchem@compuserve. com

http: / /www. nationwidecoatings. com

Thermal Control Coatings

P. O. Box 250052

Atlanta, GA 30325

404-846-0044

Fax: 404-365-0423

Email: info@thermalcontrol. com

Cotton

Inno-Therm Products L. L.C.

1633 Shea Road Newton, NC 28658 828-466-1147 Fax: 828-466-1498

Earth

Davis Caves Construction, Inc.

Marty and Ruthanne Davis

P. O. Box 69

Armington, IL 61721

309-392-2574

Fax: 309-392-2578

Email: daviscaves@daviscaves. com

http://www. daviscaves. com

The Energy Efficient and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC) P. O. Box 3048 Merrifield, VA 22116 800-DOE-EREC (363-3732)

Fax: 703-893-0400 Email: doe. erec@nciinc. com

Earth Sheltered Technology, Inc.

Jerry Hickock, President Box 5142

Mankato, MN 56001

800-345-7203

507-345-7203

Fax: 507-345-8302

http:/ /www. earthshelteredtech. com

Rainforest Action Network 221 Pine Street Suite 500 San Francisco, CA 94104 415-398-4404 Fax: 415-398-2732 Email: rainforest@ran. org

Rammed Earth Networks, Inc.

David Easton 101 South Coombs Suite N

Napa, CA 94559

707-224-2532

Fax: 707-258-1878

www. rammedearthworks. com

Rocky Mountain Research Center P. O. Box 4694 Missoula, MT 59806 406-728-5951

Solar Survival Architecture

Michael E. Reynolds, Principal Architect

P. O. Box 1041

Taos, New Mexico 87571

505-751-0462

Fax: 505-751-1005

http://www. earthship. org

http:/ /www. earthshipbiotecture. com

Quentin Branch

Rammed Earth Solar Homes, Inc.

1232 E. Linden Street Tucson, Arizona 85719 520-623-6889 Fax: 520-623-3224

Email: Info@RammedEarthHomes. com http:/ /www. rammedearthhomes. com

The American Underground-Construction Association 511 11th Avenue South, Suite 248 Minneapolis, MN 55415 612-339-5403

EIFS

Acrocrete, Inc.

3009 N. W. 75th Avenue Miami, FL 33122 305-592-5000 800-432-5097 Fax: 305-591-1497

Dryvit Systems, Inc.

One Energy Way

West Warwick, RI 02893

401-822-4100

800-556-7752

Fax: 401-823-8820

www. dryvit. com

Omega Products Corp.

P. O. Box 1889

282 Anita Drive

Orange, CA 92856

714-935-0900

800-600-6634

Fax: 714-935-0800

www. omega-products. com

Parex, Inc.

P. O. Box 189 Redan, GA 30074 770-482-7872 800-537-2739 Fax: 770-482-6878 w w w. parex. com

Pleko Southeast Corp.

915 W. Memorial Boulevard Lakeland, FL 33815 863-683-6726 Fax: 863-683-6728 www. plekoeifs. com

Pleko Systems International, Inc.

P. O. Box 98360

Tacoma, WA 98498-0369

253-472-9637

888-753-5648

Fax: 253-473-5138

www. pleko. com

Simplex Products (Finestone)

P. O. Box 10

Adrian, MI 49221

517-263-8881

800-545-6555

Fax: 517-265-3752

www. simplex-products, com

Sto Corp.

6175 Riverside Drive, S. E.

Atlanta, GA 30331 404-346-3666 800-221-2397 Fax: 404-346-3119 www. stocorp. com

Tec Specialty Products, Inc.

315 S. Hicks Road Palatine, IL 60067 847-358-9500 800-323-7407 Fax: 847-776-4340

Teifs Wall Systems

220 Burleson Street

San Antonio, TX 78202

210-472-2935

800-358-4785

Fax: 210-472-2946

www. teifs. com

USG Corporation 125 S. Franklin Street Chicago, IL 60606 800 USG-4YOU 800-874-4968 312-606-4000 Email: usg4you@usg. com http:/ /www. usg. com

Fiberglass

North American Insulation Manfacturers Association (NAIMA)

44 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 310

Alexandria, VA 22314

703-684-0084

Fax: 703-684-0427

http://www. naima. org

Ark-Seal Inc., International

2190 So. Klammath Street

Denver, CO 80223

800-525-8992

303-934-7772

Fax: 303-934-5240

Email: arkseal@hotmail. com

Blow-in-Blanket Contractors Association (ВІВСА)

1051 Kennel Drive

Rapid City, SD 57701

800-451-8862

E-mail: info@bibca. org

http.7 /www. bibca. org

CertainTeed Corporation 750 E. Swedesford Road Valley Forge, PA 19482 800-233-8990 800-782-8777

http: II www. certainteed. compro / insulation / http://www. cphome. com

Guardian Fiberglass, Inc.

1000 East North Street Albion, MI 49224 800-748-0035 517-629-6361 Fax: 800-748-0437

Email: fiberglassjwebmaster@guardian. com

Insul Binder Inc.

2190 South Klammath Street

Denver, CO 80223

800-525-8992

303-934-7772

Fax: 303-934-5240

E-mail: arkseal@hotmail. com

Knauf Fiber Glass

One Knauf Drive

Shelbyville, IN 46176

800-825-4434

317-398-4434

Fax: 317-398-3675

Email: gab2@knauffiberglass. com

Johns Manville P. O. Box 5108 Denver, CO 80217 800-654-3103 303-978-2000 Fax: 303-978-3661 http:/ /www. jm. com

Owens Corning

Bill Edmunds

Fiberglas Tower

Toledo, OH 43659

800-438-7465

614-321-7731

Fax: 614-321-5606

http://www. owenscorning. com

ICF

AAB Building System

840 Division Street

Cobourg, Ontario, Canada K9A 4J9

905-373-0004

AFM Corporation R O. Box 246 Excelsior, MN 55331 800-255-0176 Diamond Snap-Form

American ConForm Industries 1820 South Santa Fe Street Santa Ana, CA 92705 800-CONFORM SmartBlock

American Polysteel Forms 5150-F Edith NE Albuquerque, NM 87101 800-9PS-FORM Fax: 505-345-8154

Superior Walls of America, Ltd.

P. O. Box 427

Ephrata, PA 17522-0427

800-452-9255

Perlite

Airlite Processing Corporation of Florida

3505 65th Street

Vero Beach, FL 32967

561-562-3518

Fax: 561-778-8456

Email: rsmith9179@aol. com

Carolina Perlite Company, Inc.

P O. Box 158 Gold Hill, NC 28071 704-279-2325 Fax: 704-279-8818

Chemrock Corporation 4269 Edgewood Drive Jacksonville, FL 32254 904-355-0096 Fax: 904-356-3030

Chemrock Corporation Buttermilk Lane Thomaston, ME 04861 207-594-8225 Fax: 207-594-8225

Cornerstone Ind. Minerals Corp.

P O. Box 1287 Lakeview, OR 97630 503-947-5755 Fax: 541-947-5770

Eagle-Picher Minerals, Inc.

6110 Plumas Street

Reno, NV 89509

702-824-7600

Fax: 702-824-7694

Email: codym@minerals. epcorp. com

Filter-Media Co.

P. O. Box 19546 Houston, TX 77224-9156 713-780-9000

Harborlite Corporation 1450 Simpson Way Escondido, CA 92029 619-745-5900 Fax: 619-745-6349

Harborlite Corporation 100 Robert Blunt Drive Youngsville, NC 27596

919- 562-0031 Fax: 919-554-0870

Idaho Minerals, LLC P. O. Box 162 Malad City, ID 83252 208-766-4054 Fax: 208-766-4134

Midwest Perlite, Inc.

4280 W. Parkway Boulevard Appleton, WI 54915

920- 731-2671 Fax: 920-731-2600

Nor-Cal Perlite, Inc.

2605 Goodrick Avenue

Richmond, CA 94801

510-232-7337

Fax: 510-232-8127

Email: info@nor-cal-perlite. com

Persolite Products, Inc.

P. O. Box 505 201 South Robertson Florence, CO 81226 303-572-3222 (Denver area) 719-784-6531 (Florence plant) Fax: 719-784-4855

Renaissance Perlite 2100 Line Road Brunswick, GA 31520 912-264-6372 Fax: 912-267-6096

Schundler Company

P. O. Box 513

Metuchen, NJ 08840

732-287-2244

Fax: 732-287-4185

Email: bruce@schundler. com

Silver & Baryte North America 2100 Line Street Brunswick, GA 31520 212-752-1099 Fax: 212-752-1631

Supreme Perlite Company 4600 North Suttle Road Portland, OR 97217-7797 503-286-4333 Fax: 503-286-1068 Email: perlite@europa. com

Therm-O-Rock East, Inc.

P O. Box 429 New Eagle, PA 15067 412-258-3670 Fax: 412-258-2595

Therm-O-Rock West, Inc. 6732 W. Willis Road #5014 Chandler, AZ 85226 520-796-1000 Fax: 520-796-0223 Email: rdobkin@aol. com

USG Corporation 125 South Franklin Chicago, IL 60606-4678 312-606-4000 Fax: 312-606-4093

Whittemore Company, Inc. 30 Glenn Street Lawrence, MA 01843 978-681-8833 Fax: 978-682-3413 Email: whitcol919@aol. com

World Minerals 130 Castilian Drive Santa Barbara, CA 93117 805-562-0260 Fax: 805-562-0299

Polyicynene

Icynene Inc.

5805 Whittle Road, Suite 110

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4Z 2J1

888-946-7325

905-890-7325

Fax: 905-890-7784

http://www. icynene. com

Polyisocyanurate

Atlas Roofing Corporation The Triangle Building 1775 The Exchange, Suite 160 Atlanta, GA 30339 770-952-1442

Celotex Corporation 4010 Boy Scout Blvd.

Tampa, FL 33607

800-CELOTEX

813-873-4000

Email: international@celotex. com http://www. celotex. com

Firestone Building Products Company 525 Congressional Blvd.

Carmel, IN 46032-5607 800-428-4442

Hunter Panels 15 Franklin Street Portland, ME 04101 888-746-1114

IKO Industries, Ltd.

1 Yorkdale Road, Suite 602 Toronto, Ontario, Canada M6A 3A1 416-781-5545

Johns Manville 27 Pearl Street Portland, ME 04101 303-978-2000

Rmax, Inc.

3811 Turtle Creek Blvd., Suite 900 Dallas, TX 75219 800-527-0890

Polystyrene

AFM Corporation

R-Control Building Systems

P. O. Box 246

24000 W. Highway 7

Excelsior, MN 55331

800-255-0176

612-474-0809

Fax: 612-474-2074

Email: mtobin@r-control. com

www. r-control. com

Alamo Foam, Inc.

Roy B. Duggan, Jr.

P. O. Box 47107

San Antonio, TX 78265

210-646-8288

Fax: 210-646-7968

Email: roybduggan@yahoo. com

Allied Foam Products, Inc.

1604 Athens Highway

P. O. Box 2861

Gainesville, GA 30501

770-536-7900

Fax: 770-532-8123

Email: jimclark@mindspring. com

www. alliedfoamproducts. com

BASF Corporation

3000 Continental Drive North

Mt. Olive, NJ 07828

973-426-3908

Fax: 973-426-3904

http:// www. basf. com

Cellofoam

581 Sigman Road

P. O. Box 406

Conyers, GA 30012

800-241-3634

Fax: 770-929-3608

Email: cellofoam@mindspring. com

http.7 /www. cellofoam. com

DiversiFoam Products 9091 County Road 50 Rockford, MN 55373 612-477-5854 Fax: 612-477-5863 Email: info@diversifoam. com www. diversifoam. com

Dow Chemical Company Styrofoam Brand Products 2020 Willard H. Dow Center Midland, MI 48674 800-441-4369

Drew Foam Companies 144 Industrial Drive Highway 35 South Monticello, AR 71655 870-367-6245 Fax: 870-367-0785 Email: drewfoam@ccc-cable. net www. dre wfoam. com

Hirsch USA

215 Prospect Park, Suite A Peachtree City, GA 30269

770-632-6484 Fax: 770-632-6485 Email: hirschus@gte. net www. hirsch-gruppe. com

Insulated Building Systems, Inc.

326 McGhee Road

Winchester, VA 22605

540-662-0882

Fax: 540-662-9104

Email: insbldgsys@aol. com

www. rcontrolibs. com

Insulation Technology, Inc.

35 First Street

P. O. Box 578

Bridgewater, MA 02324

508-697-6926

Fax: 508-697-6934

Email: insultec@insultech-eps. com

www. insultech-eps. com

Knauf USA Polystyrene, Inc. Chris Gattis 2725 Henkle Drive Lebanon, OH 45036 800-221-6923 Fax: 513-932-3506 Email: chris@knauf-eps. com www. knauf-eps. com

Northwest Foam Products, Inc.

2390 Rostron Circle

Twin Falls, ID 83301

800-398-0804

Fax: 208-736-8690

Email: nwfoam@magiclink. com

Perma “R” Products 16916 Highway 8W P O. Box 279 Granada, MS 38902 800-647-6130 Fax: 601-226-8088 Email: tleclair@dixie-net. com www. sipsproducts. com

Plymouth Foam Products 1800 Sunset Drive Plymouth, WI 53073 920-893-0535 or 800-669-1176 Fax: 920-892-4986 Email: ScottR@plymouthfoam. com http://www. plymouthfoam. com

Quad-Lock Building Systems, Inc.

7398 132nd Street

Surrey, British Columbia, Canada V3W 4M7

604-590-3111

Fax: 604-590-8412

Email: info@quadlock. com

www. q uadlock. com

Shelter Enterprises, Inc.

P. O. Box 618

8 Saratoga Street

Cohoes, NY 12047

518-237-4100

Fax: 518-237-0125

Email: sheltertherm@taconic. net

www. shelter-ent. com

StyroChem U. S., Ltd.

11591 Business Highway 287 North

Fort Worth, TX 76179

817-236-8317

Fax: 817-236-7129

Email: mpate@s-chem. com

www. styrochem. com

Pactive Corporation

(formerly Amocor, Amofoam, Tenneco)

2100 RiverEdge Parkway Suite 175 Atlanta, GA 30328 800-241-4402

http:/ /www. tennecobuildingprod. com/index. html

Therma Foam, Inc.

P. O. Box 161128

Fort Worth, TX 76161-1128

817-624-7204

Fax: 817-624-7264

Email: thermafoam@msn. com

www. thermafoam. com

Polyurethane

American Chemical Technologies 53280 Marina Drive Elkhart, IN 46514 877-452-2104 Fax: 219-264-3698

Email: dmattix@geocelworldwide. com

Arizona Foam and Spray

222 S. Date Street

Mesa, AZ 85211

480-834-8176

Fax: 480-461-6926

Email: whip@azfs. com

http: 11 www. arizonafoam-arithane. com

Burtin Corporation 2550 South Garnsey Santa Ana, CA 92707 714-850-1370 Fax: 714-850-0437

Carlisle Syntec Incorporated

1285 Ritner Highway

Carlisle, PA 17013

717-245-7000

Fax: 717-245-7053

Email: goodman@synteccarlisle. com

http:/ /www. carlislesyntec. com

Convenience Products

866 Horan Drive

Fenton, MO 63026-2416

636-349-5333

Fax: 636-349-5335

Email: memsl@claytoncorp. com

http://www. touch-n-seal. com

Corbond Corporation

32404 East Frontage Road

Bozeman, MT 59715

406-586-4585

Fax: 406-586-4584

Email: corbond@corbond. com

http:/ /www. corbond. com

Demilec USA, LLC 1122 W. N. Carrier Parkway Grand Prairie, TX 75050 972-647-0561 Fax: 972-660-1006

ERSystems 50 Medina Street P O. Box 56

Loretto, MN 55357-0056

612-479-6680

Fax: 612-479-6691

Email: ersinfo@ersystems. com

http:/ /www. ersystems. com

Far North Urethane 2115 Loose Moose Loop North Pole, AK 99705 907-488-0900

Email: fnu@mosquitonet. com http:/ /www. mosquitonet. com/~fnu

Flexible Products/Premium Polymers Group

2050 N. Broadway

Joilet, IL 60435

800-800-3626

Fax: 815-741-6912

Foam Enterprises, Inc.

13630 Watertower Circle

Minneapolis, MN 55441

888-900-3626

Fax: 612-559-0945

Email: foament@aol. com

http://www. foamenterprises. com

Foam Enterprises, Inc.

Comfort Foam

13630 Watertower Circle

Minneapolis, MN 55441

800-888-3342

Fax: 763-559-9045

Email: info@comfortfoam. com

http: //www. comfortfoam. com

Foam Enterprises, Inc.

1752 Millerwood Drive

New Albany, IN 47150

812-945-0919

Fax: 812-949-0567

Email: l. faith3084@aol. com

http://www. foamenterprises. com

Foam Enterprises, Inc.

2640 East Hale Street Mesa, AZ 85213 602-402-4440 Fax: 602-898-1586

Email: tom_shackelford@foamenterpises. com http.7 /www. foamenterprises. com

Foam Material and Equipment 5125 N. 2nd Street St. Louis, MO 63147 314-231-6712 Fax: 314-231-6448

FOAM-TECH P. O. Box 87

North Thretford, VT 05054 802-333-4333

http.7 /supergreenfoam. com

Gaco Western Inc.

18700 Southcenter Parkway Tukwila, WA 98188 206-575-0450 Email: info@gaco. com http://www. gaco. com

Great Northern Insulation Sealection 500 935 Keyes Drive

Woodstock, Ontario, Canada N4V 1C3

800-265-1914

519-537-5873

Fax: 519-539-7946

http:/ /ww w. gni. on. ca / no frames, html

H. C. Fennell, Inc. dba/Foam-Tech Div. 1 P. O. Box 87 Route 5

N. Thretford, VT 05054

802-333-4333

Fax: 802-333-4364

Email: foamtech@sover. net

http.7 /www. supergreenfoam. com

Hess Polyurethanes, Inc.

40 Enterprise Blvd.

Atlanta, GA 30336

404-699-1960

Fax: 404-699-0036

Email: mhess@hesspoly. com

North Carolina Foam Industries

1515 Carter Street

Mt. Airy, NC 27030

336-789-9161

Fax: 336-787-9586

Email: rogerm@ncfi. net

http:/ /www. ncfi. com

Polycoat Systems Inc.

5 Depot Street Hudson Falls, NY 12839 800-547-4004 Fax: 518-747-5894 Email: info@polycoat, com http.7 /www. polycoat. com

Polycoat Systems, Inc.

5110-H Fulton Industrial Boulevard

Atlanta, GA 30336

800-229-4509

Fax: 404-696-9626

Email: info@polycoat, com

http.7 /www. polycoat. com

Polyfoam Products, Inc.

P. O. Box 1132

2400 Spring Stuebner Road

Spring, TX 77389

281-350-8888

Fax: 281-288-6450

Polythane Systems, Inc.

2400 Spring Stuebner Road Spring, TX 77389 800-221-3626 281-350-9000 Fax: 281-288-6450 Email: tsparkspsi@aol. com http://www. polythane. com

Polythane Systems, Inc.

2119 NW 65th Avenue Bell, FL 32619 407-341-3913 Email: tompsi@aol. com http.7 /www. polythane. com

Polythane Systems, Inc.

7167 Willowood Drive

Cincinnati, OH 45241

513-759-9420

Fax: 513-759-9421

Email: ohiopsi@email. msn. com

http:/ /www. polythane. com

Polythane Systems, Inc.

930 Tahoe Boulevard, #802, Suite 379

Incline Village, NV 89451

775-832-8065

Fax: 775-832-6859

Email: converse@polythane. com

http.7 /www. polythane. com

Polythane Systems, Inc.

1712 Wilshire Blvd.

Wilson, NC 27893 252-237-6900 Fax: 252-237-6960 Email: psinc@cocentral. com http://www. polythane. com

Polythane Systems, Inc.

35 East 30th Street, Suite 7A New York, NY 10016 212-689-4440 Fax: 212-685-9262 Email: psinyc@aol. com http.7 /www. polythane. com

Quantum Coatings, Inc.

12243 Branford Street

Sun Valley, CA 91352

818-896-1101

Fax: 818-897-0180

http.7 /www. quantum. com

Quantum Coatings, Inc.

9200 Latty Avenue

Hazelwood, MO 63042

314-522-3510

Fax: 314-524-6522

Email: bschenke@isofoam. com

http://www. quantum. com

Resin Technology Co.

2270 Castle Harbor Place Ontario, Canada 91761 800-729-0795 Fax: 909-923-9617 Email: sellrtc@aol. com http:/ /www. permax. com

Stepan Company

22 West Frontage Road

Northfield, IL 60093

847-446-7500

Fax: 847-441-1466

Email: bbeauchamp@stepan. com

http:/ /www. stepan. com

SWD Urethane Company

222 South Date Street

Mesa, AZ 85201

480-969-8413

Fax: 480-461-6926

Email: whip@swdurethane. com

http://www. swdurethane. com

Technical Roofing Solutions, Inc. 1600 Airport Road Waukesha, WI 53188 414-820-8939 Fax: 410-820-8949 Email: gevance23@aol. com

UCSC

1208 North Grand

Roswell, NM 88201

505-623-9726

Fax: 505-623-1908

Email: ucsc@ucscurethane. com

http.7 /www. ucscurethane. com

UCSC

3010 W. Lincoln Street

Phoenix, AZ 85009

602-269-9711

Fax: 602-269-9115

Email: ucsc@ucscurethane. com

http://www. ucscurethane. com

Unique Urethanes, Inc.

906 H. D. Atha Road Monroe, GA 30655 770-207-4534 Fax: 770-207-4535

Universal Coatings, Inc.

1220 E. North Avenues Fresno, CA 93725 559-233-6300 Fax: 559-233-6200 Email: uci@qnis. net

Utah Foam Products, Inc.

3609 South 700 West Salt Lake City, UT 84119 801-269-0600 Fax: 801-269-0620 Email: info@utahfoam. com http.7 /www. utahfoam. com

Radiant Barriers

R+ Heatshield Radiant Barrier

ASTRO-FOIL Innovative Energy

10653 W. 181st Avenue

Lowell, IN 46356

800-776-3645

219-696-3639

Fax: 800-551-3645

Email: ie@astrofoil. com

http: / /www. insul. net/common, html

ChemRex, Inc.

889 Valley Park

Shakopee, MN 55379

800-766-6776

612-496-6001

Fax:612-496-6058

Email: pault@chemrex. com

www. radiancecomfort. com

Florida Solar Energy Center

300 State Road 401

Cape Canaveral, FL 32920-4099

Environmentally Safe Products, Inc.

313 West Golden Lane

New Oxford, PA 17350

800-289-5693

717-624-3581

Fax: 717-624-7089

Email: espinc@low-e. com

www. low-e. com

Fibrex Insulations, Inc.

561 Scott Road

Sarnia, Ontario, Canada N7T 7L4

800-265-7514

Fax: 800-363-4440

Pactive Corporation

(formerly Amocor, Amofoam, Tenneco)

2100 RiverEdge Parkway, Suite 175

Atlanta, GA 30328

800-227-7339

678-589-7337

Fax: 678-589-7325

http:/ /www. tennecobuildingprod. com/index. html

Simplex Products P. O. Box 10 Adrian, MI 49221 800-345-8881 517-263-8881 Fax: 517-265-3752

Thermal Design, Inc.

P. O. Box 468 Madison, NE 68748 800-255-0776 402-454-6591 Fax: 402-454-2708

Reflective insulation

Astro-Foil Reflective Insulation

R+ Heatshield Radiant Barrier

ASTRO-FOIL Innovative Energy

10653 W. 181st Avenue

Lowell, IN 46356

800-776-3645

219-696-3639

Fax: 800-551-3645

Email: ie@astrofoil. com

http: / /www. insul. net/common, html

Environmentally Safe Products, Inc. 313 West Golden Ln.

New Oxford, PA 17350

800-289-5693

717-624-3581

Fax: 717-624-7089

Email: espinc@low-e. com

www. low-e. com

Innovative Insulation, Inc.

6200 W. Pioneer Parkway

Arlington, TX 76013

800-825-0123

817-446-6200

Fax: 817-446-6222

Email: insulation@earthlink. net

Parsec, Inc.

P. O. Box 551477 Dallas, TX 75355-1477 800-527-3454 Fax: 214-553-0983

Ply-Foil, Inc.

P. O. Box Q

Elkhart Lake, WI 53020 800-558-5895

Poly air, Inc.

4525 Frederick Drive Atlanta, GA 30336 1-888-POLYAIR 404-505-8742 404-505-1198

Sailshade

P. O. Box 3935

Westport, Ma 02790

888-600-3858

Fax: 508-677-3160

Email: susan@sailshade. com

Sealed Air Corporation Park 80 East Saddle Brook, NJ 07663 201-791-7600

TechShield

Louisiana-Pacific Corp. Headquarters/Corporate Office 111 S. W. Fifth Avenue Portland, OR 97204 800-648-6893

Email: customer. support@LPCorp. com

Solar Energy Corporation Box 3065

Princeton, NJ 08543-3065 609-883-7700

LO/MIT I and II radiant barrier paints

Solar Shield, Inc.

1264 Old Alpharetta Road Alpharetta, GA 30005 800-654-3645 Fax: 770-343-8093

Solec

129 Walters Avenue Ewing Township, NJ 08638

609- 883-7700 Fax: 609-497-0182

Tenneco Building Products 242 North Thistle Down Kennett Square, PA 19348 800-422-1284, ext. 338

610- 444-6218 Fax: 610-444-6217

Rockwool

American Rockwool 1000 Patty Hamilton Road Nolanville, TX 76559 800-792-3539 (TX)

800-762-9665 (other)

Rock Wool Manufacturing Company

P. O. Box 506

Leeds, AL 35094-0506

205-699-6121

Fax: 205-699-3132

Roxul, Inc.

551 Harrop Drive

Milton, Ontario Canada L9T-3H3

800-265-6878

Fax: 905-878-8077

Sloss Industries Corporation 3500 35th Avenue North Birmingham, AL 35207 205-808-7803 Fax: 205-808-7805

Thermafiber Mineral Wool

3711 W. Mill Street

Wabash, IN 46992

219-563-2111

Fax: 219-563-8979

Email: jshriver@thermafiber. com

SIPs

Structural Insulated Panel Association 3413 A 56th Street NW Gig Harbor, WA 98335 253-858-SIPA (7472)

Fax: 253-858-0272 Email: staff@sips. org http://www. sips. org/

AFM Corporation R-Control Building Systems Box 246

24000 W. Highway 7 Excelsior, MN 55331 800-255-0176

Apache Products Company Industrial Park P O. Box 160 Union, MS 39365 800-530-7762

FischerSIPS, Inc.

1843 Northwestern Parkway

Louisville, KY 40203

502-778-5577

800-792-7477

Fax: 502-774-5644

Email: markv@fischergrp. com

w w w. fisc her sips, com

Insulspan SIPS Perma “R” Products, Inc. Johnson City, TN 800-251-7532

Winter Panel Corporation RR 5, Box 168B Glen Orne Drive Brattleboro, VT 05301 802-254-3435

Straw

California Straw Building Association (CASBA) 115 Angelita Avenue Pacifica, CA 94044 805-546-4274

http://www. strawbuilding. com

Daniel Smith & Associates, Architects

1107 Virginia Street

Berkeley, CA 94702

510-526-1935

Fax: 510-526-1961

Email: info@dsaarch. com

http:/ /www. dsaarch. com/

Development Center for Appropriate Technology

P O. Box 41144

Tucson, AZ 85717

520-326-1418

Email: strawnet@aol. com

Harvest Built Homes

Nancy Richardson, Executive Director

93 California Street

Ashland OR 97520

541-482-8733

www. harvesthomes. org

GreenFire Institute

1509 Queen Anne Avenue North, #606

Seattle, WA 98109

206-284-7470

Straw Bale Construction Association (SBCA) Star Route 2, Box 119 Kingston, NM 88042 505-895-5400

Straw Bale Association of Nebraska (SBAN)

c/o Joyce Coppinger

2110 South 33rd Street

Lincoln, NE 68506-6001

800-910-3019.

Straw Bale Association of Texas (SBAT)

P. O. Box 4211 Austin, TX 78763-4211 512-302-6766

The Last Straw HC 66 Box 119 Hillsboro, NM 88042 505-895-5400

Email: thelaststraw@zianet. com www. strawhomes. com

The Staw Bale House

by Althena Swntzell Steen, Bill Steen, and David Bainbridge

Chelsea Green Publishing Company

White River Junction, VT

1994, ISBN: 0-930031-71-7

http://www. amazon. com

http:/ /www. powells. com

Tripolymer foam

C. P. Chemical Co., Inc.

Tripolymer Foam

25 Home Street

White Plains, NY 10606

914-428-2517

Fax: 914-428-3630

Email: Info@Tripolymer. com

http:/ /www. tripolymer. com

USA Energy Consultants Tripolymer Foam Central and Southern Ohio 5411 Franklin Street Hilliard, OH 43026 614-529-2440 Fax: 614-529-2445 888-894-1024

Email: info@tripolymer. com

Vapor Retarders

Grace Construction Products 62 Whittemore Avenue Cambridge, MA 02140 617-876-1400 Fax: 617-498-4311 800-354-5414

Owens Corning World Headquarters

One Owens Corning Parkway

Toledo, OH 43659

800-GET-PINK

Fax: 419-248-7506

Email: answers@owenscorning. com

http://www. owenscorning. com

Pactive Corporation

(formerly Amocor, Amofoam, Tenneco)

2100 RiverEdge Parkway, Suite 175 Atlanta, GA 30328 800-241-4402

http: //www. tennecobuildingprod. com / index, html

Reef Industries, Inc.

P O. Box 750250 Houston, TX 77275-0250 800-231-6074

713- 507-4200 Fax: 713-507-4295

Sealflex Industries 2925 College Avenue, B4 Costa Mesa, CA 92626 800-651-2098

714- 708-0850 Fax: 714-708-2711

Vermiculite

American Vermiculite Corp. 1000 Cobb Place Blvd.

Bldg. 100, Suite 190 Kennesaw, GA 30144 770-590-7970 Fax: 770-590-0239

Isolatek International

41 Furnace Street

Stanhope, NJ 07874

219-356-2040, ext. 317

Fax: 219-356-2337

Email: junderwood@isolatek. com

Vermiculite Industrial Corp.

731-733 Washington Road

P. O. Box 11999

Pittsburgh, PA 15228-0999

412-344-9900

Fax: 412-344-9909

Email: bognar5@adelphia. net

W. R. Grace & Co.

62 Whittemore Avenue

Cambridge, MA 02140

617-498-4346

Fax: 617-547-7663

Email: eric. m. moeller@grace. com


Appendix

с

Directory of Historical Insulation Products

The information contained within this directory has been obtained from The Thermal Insulation of Buildings, by Paul Dunham Close (New York: Reinhold, 1947). This directory is not intended to be an all-inclusive source; however, the information is presented as a ser­vice to the reader and to facilitate further research or education. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the material. The author and the publisher will not accept any liability for omis­sions or errors.

Trade name

Manufacturer or distributor

Description or basic materials

Air-cell-board

Waldorf Paper Products Co., St. Paul, MN

Single layer of corrugated board with liner both surfaces

Air-Flo-Board

Waldorf Paper Products Co., St. Paul, MN

Double layer of corrugated board with flat paper between and on both surfaces, 3/8" thick

Air-Met

H. D. Catty Corporation, New York, NY

Reflective insulation

Airseal Mineral Wool

Insulation Products, Ltd., Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Mineral wool

Airtite

Corkboard

Cork Import Company, New York, NY

Corkboard

Alfol

Alfol Insulation Co., New York, NY

Aluminum foil blanket

Ankarboard

Ankarsviks Angsags A/B, Sundsvall, Sweden

Wood fiber

Manufacturer or Description or

Trade name

distributor

basic materials

Anti-Pyre Quilt

Samuel Cabot, Inc., Boston, MA

Blanket insulation consisting of eelgrass between fire – resistant paper

Armstrong’s Insulating Wool

Armstrong Cork Co., Lancaster, PA

Glass wool

Asbestos Quilt

Samuel Cabot, Inc., Boston, MA

Blanket insulation consisting of eelgrass between layers of sheet asbestos

Balsam Wool

Wood Conversion Company, St. Paul, MN

Blanket insulation consisting of wood fibers encased on both sides and edges with kraft liners

Banroc

Johns-Manville Sales Corp., New York, NY

Rock wool

Barrett

Barrett Company, New York, NY

Rock wool

Beaver

Insulating Lath

CertainTeed Products Corp., Chicago, IL

Reflective insulation consisting of gypsum lath with aluminum foil surface

BH

Baldwin-Hill Company, Trenton, NJ

Mineral wool

Bildrite

sheathing

Insulite, Division of M. & 0. Paper Co., Minneapolis, MN

Wood fiber insulating board sheathing

Blendtex

United States Gypsum Co., Chicago, IL

Wood fiber insulating board

Cabots Quilt

Samuel Cabot, Inc., Boston, MA

Blanket insulation consisting of eelgrass between layers of paper

Canasco

Canadian Asbestos Co., Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Canec

Hawaiian Cane Products, Ltd., San Francisco, CA

Cane fiber insulating board

Capital

Standard Lime & Stone Co., Baltimore, MD

Rock wool

Cardinal Insulating Felt

American Hair & Felt Co., Chicago, IL

Animal hair blanket insulation

Carney

Carney Rock Wool Co., Mankato, MN

Rock wool

Cell-U-Blanket

Masonite Corporation, Chicago, IL

Blanket insulation consisting of wood fiber insulation between layers of paper

Cellufoam

Masonite Corporation, Chicago, IL

Semirigid wood fiber product

Cellulite

Gilman Bros. Co., Gilman, CT

Cotton blanket insulation

Trade name

Manufacturer or distributor

Description or basic materials

Celo-Block

Celotex Corporation, Chicago, IL

Cold storage insulation made from cane fiber insulating board

Celobric

Celotex Corporation, Chicago, IL

Cane fiber insulating board with asphalted surface embedded on one side with mineral granules in brick pattern

Celo-Siding

Celotex Corporation, Chicago, IL

Cane fiber insulating board, asphalt-coated, mineral granules embedded on one side

Celotex

Celotex Corporation, Chicago, IL

Cane fiber insulating board

Celotex rock wool

Celotex Corporation, Chicago, IL

Rock wool, granulated, loose, and batts

Cemesto

Celotex Corporation, Chicago, IL

Insulating board between layers of asbestos cement board

Cemex

Structural Insulation Corp., Quincy, IL

Excelsior wood fiber and Portland cement

Century

Keabey & Mattison Co., Ambler, PA

Rock wool

Colorkote

Fir-Тех Insulating Board Co., Portland, OR

Wood fiber insulating board

Columbia

U. S. Mineral Wool Co., Chicago, IL

Mineral wool

Corkduc

Cork Import Company, New York, NY

Corkboard

Decoblend

The Flintkote Co., New York, NY

Wood fiber insulating board

Denesen

Denesen Company, Minneapolis, MN

Rock wool products

Domster Board

Made in Sweden

Wood fiber insulating board

Donnacona

Donnacona Paper Co., Donnacona, Quebec, Canada

Laminated wood fiber insulating board

Dry Zero

American Hair & Felt Co., Chicago, IL

Kapoc blanket insulation

Dubble-Seal

Sheathing

Masonite Corporation, Chicago, IL

Wood fiber insulating board sheathing

Eagle

Eagle-Picher Sales Co., Cincinnati, OH

Mineral wool

Ecod Metal Lath

Reynolds Metal Co., Richmond, VA

Plaster base of steel reinforcing wire backed with aluminum foil on kraft paper

Ehret Rock Wool Batts

Ehret Magnesia Mfg. Co., Valley Forge, PA

Rock wool batts

Trade name

Manufacturer or distributor

Description or basic materials

Enso Board

Enso-Gutzeit Co., Enso, Finland

Wool fiber insulating board

Feltrok Mineral Wool

Independent Insulations, Inc., Tacoma, WA

Mineral wool

Ferrotherm

American Flange & Mtg. Co., New York, NY

Reflective insulation, sheet iron with alloy coating

Fesco Board

F. E. Schundler & Co., Joliet, IL

Slab insulation, vermiculite with asphalt binder

Fiberglas

Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp., Toledo, OH

Glass wool, batts, blankets, and blowing and pouring wool

Fiberglas AE Board

Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp., Toledo, OH

Slab insulation, compressed glass fibers, asphalt-enclosed

Fiberglass PF Insulation

Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp., Toledo, OH

Slab insulation, compressed glass fibers with binder

Fiberlite

Insulite Division M. & 0. Paper Co., Minneapolis, MN

Wood fiber insulating tile

Firkote

Fir-Tex Insulating Board Co., Portland, OR

Wood fiber insulating board sheathing

Fir-Tex

Fir-Tex Insulating Board Co., Portland, OR

Wood fiber insulating board

Five Point Mineral Wool

R. Laidlow Lumber Co., Ltd., Toronto, Ont., Canada

Mineral wool

Flintkote Insulation Board

The Flintkote Co., New York, NY

Wood fiber insulating board

Flintkote Insulating Wool

The Flintkote Co., New York, NY

Glass wool

Flintlock

Sheathing

The Flintkote Co., New York, NY

Insulating board sheathing

Foamglas

Pittsburgh Corning Corp., Pittsburgh, PA

Cellular glass slab

Gimco

National Gypsum Co., Buffalo, NY

Rock wool

Gold Bond Aluminum Foil Insulating Board and Lath

National Gypsum Co., Buffalo, NY

Gypsum wallboard and lath with aluminum foil laminated to one surface

Gold Bond Insulating Board

National Gypsum Co., Buffalo, NY

Wood fiber insulating board

Gold Bond Sealed Blanket, Batts, and Rock Wool

National Gypsum Co., Buffalo, NY

Rock wool

Trade name

Manufacturer or distributor

Description or basic materials

Gold Bond Dry Fill Insulation

National Gypsum Co., Buffalo, NY

Powdered gypsum fill insulation

Graylite

Insulite Division of M. & 0. Paper Co., Minneapolis, MN

Wood fiber insulating board

Gyproc

Gypsum, Lime & Alabastine, Ltd.,

Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Mineral wool

Handcraft

Wilson & Co., Chicago, IL

Hairinsul

American Hair & Felt Co., Chicago, IL

Blanket insulation made from cattle hair or hair and jute

Handi-Batts

National Gypsum Co., Buffalo, NY

Rock wool batts

Hilite

United States Gypsum Co., Chicago, IL

Wood fiber insulating board

Homart Loose Rock Wool and Batts

Sears-Roebuck & Co., Chicago, IL

Rock wool

Homart Mineral Fill

Sears-Roebuck & Co., Chicago, IL

Vermiculite

Homeguard

Gamble Stores, Inc., Minneapolis, MN

Fill insulation made from wood fiber

Infra

Infra Insulation Co., New York, NY

Accordion-type aluminum foil

Insl-Cotton

Taylor Bedding Mfg. Co., Taylor, TX

Cotton insulating blanket

Ins-Lite

Insulite Division of M. & 0. Paper Co., Minneapolis, MN

Wood fiber insulating board

Insulite

Insulite Division of M. & 0. Paper Co., Minneapolis, MN

Wood fiber insulating board

Insulroc

Rock Products Co., Nashville, TN

Rock wool

Insul-Wool

Insul-Wood Corporation, Wichita, KS

Wood fiber insulation

Insulwool

General Insulating Products Co., Brooklyn, NY

Isorel

Isorel, Paris, France

Wood fiber insulating board

Ivrykote Building Board (Fir-Tex)

Fir-Tex Insulating Board Co., Portland, OR

Wood fiber insulating board

Trade name

Manufacturer or distributor

Description or basic materials

J-M Insulating Board

Johns-Manville Sales Corp., New York, NY

Wood fiber insulating board

Jiffy Blanket

Jiffy Mfg. Co., Hillside, NJ

Blanket insulation consisting of macerated paper between kraft paper

Johns-Manville Rock Wool

Johns-Manville Sales Corp., New York, NY

Rock wool

Jointite

Mundet Cork Co., Brooklyn, NY

Corkboard

Kimsul

Kimberly-Clark Corporation, Neenah, WI

Wood fiber blanket insulation

Kolorfast

Wood Conversion Co., St. Paul, MN

Wood fiber insulating board

L-W Insulating Board

Ljusne-Woxna Co., Ljusne, Sweden

Wood fiber insulating board

Lockaire

Plastergon Wallboard Co., Buffalo, NY

Licorice root insulating board

Lo-K

Lockport Cotton Batting Co., Lockport, NY

Cotton insulating blanket

Lok-Joint

Insulite Division of M. & 0. Paper Co., Minneapolis, MN

Wood fiber insulating board lath

Maftex

See Lockaire

Maizewood

Maizewood Insulation Co., Dubuque, IA

Insulating board made from corn stalks

Masonite

Masonite Corporation, Chicago, IL

Wood fiber insulating board

Masterfill

B. F. Nelson Mfg. Co., Minneapolis, MN

Vermiculite

Metallation

Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA

Aluminum foil reflective insulation

Micafil

Munn and Steele, Inc., Newark, NJ

Vermiculite

Mico

Mineral Insulation Co., Chicago, IL

Mineral wool

Mineral Wood Board

Armstrong Cork Company, Lancaster, PA

Slab insulation made from rock wood with asphalt binder

Mitchell & Smith

Mitchell & Smith Co., Detroit, MI

Corkboard

Multicell

Multicell Sales Corp., Minneapolis, MN

Blanket insulation consisting of layers of newspapers stiched together

Trade name

Manufacturer or distributor

Description or basic materials

Nat Rock

National Rock Wool Sales, Inc., Lagro, IN

Rock wool

Natur-Temp

Barnhardt Mfg. Co., Charlotte, NC

Cotton insulating blanket

Naturzone

Wilson & Company, Chicago, IL

Slab insulation made from hog hair and asphalt

No void

Cork Import Corp., New York, NY

Corkboard

No void Mineral Wool Board

Cork Import Corp., New York, NY

Slab insulation made from mineral wool

Nu-Wood

Wood Conversion Company, St. Paul, MN

Wood fiber insulating board

Ozite All-Hair Building Blanket

American Hair & Felt Company, Chicago, IL

Cattle hair insulating blanket

Palmatex

Palmatex Corporation, Pinellas Park, FL

Insulating board made from palm fibers

Pal-o-Pak

Hines Lumber Co., Chicago, IL

Fill insulation

Partemp

Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, OH

Cotton insulating blanket

Perfection

Riverton Lime & Stone Co., Riverton, WV

Rock wool

Poeco

C. W. Poe Company, Cleveland, OH

Rock wool

Porete

Porete Mfg. Company, North Arlington, NJ

Slab insulation made from wood fiber and Portland cement

Porex Slabs

Porete Mfg. Company, North Arlington, NJ

Slab insulation made from wood fiber and Portland cement

Pyrofill

U. S. Gypsum Company, Chicago, IL

Powdered gypsum fill insulation

Red Top Batts, Blanket, and Insulating Wood

U. S. Gypsum Company, Chicago, IL

Glass wool (see Fiberglas)

Reyn-O-Cell

Reynolds Metals Company, Richmond, VA

Cotton blanket insulation

Rock Cork

Johns-Manville Sales Corporation, New York, NY

Slab insulation consisting of rock wool with asphalt binder

Rocktex

Philip Carey Mfg. Company, Cincinnati, OH

Rock wool

Rubatex

Virginia Rubatex Division Great Industries, Inc., Bedford, VA

Slab insulation made from rubber

Trade name

Manufacturer or distributor

Description or basic materials

Rocklath,

Insulating

U. S. Gypsum Company, Chicago, IL

Gypsum lath with aluminum foil laminated to one surface

Ru-Ber-Oid Rock Wool Insulation

Ruberoid Company, New York, NY

Rock wool

Salisco

Salem Lime & Stone Company, Salem, IN

Rock wool

Satincote

Insulite Division of M. & 0. Paper Co., Minneapolis, MN

Wood fiber insulating board

Seal-O-Wool

U. S. Roofing Company, St. Paul, MN

Mineral wool

Sheetrock,

Insulating

U. S. Gypsum Company, Chicago, IL

Gypsum wallboard with aluminum foil laminated to one surface

Silvercote

Silvercote Products Company, Chicago, IL

Reflective fabric consisting of sheets coated with oxide composition

Simpson Insulating Board

Simpson Logging Co., Seattle, WA

Wood fiber insulating board

K-25

Wood Conversion Co., St. Paul, MN

Made from balsam wool fiber

Sisalation

Sisalkraft Company, Chicago, IL

Reflective moisture barrier paper

Smoothcote

Insulite Division of M. & 0. Paper Co., Minneapolis, MN

Wood fiber insulating board

Sonotherm

Sonotherm Mfg. Co. Inc., San Francisco, CA

Slab insulation made from wood fiber and cement

Sprayo-Flake

Sprayo-Flake Company, Chicago, IL

Fibrous flakes projected with anatomized adhesive against surfaces to be insulated

Spun Rock Wool

Spun Rock Wools, Ltd., Thorold, Ont, Canada

Rock wool

Sta-Lite Tile

Wood Conversion Company, St. Paul, MN

Wood fiber insulating board tile

Standard Cotton Insulation

Standard Cotton Products Co., Flint, MI

Cotton insulating blanket

Stonefelt

Johns-Manville Sales Corp., New York, NY

Rock wool

Stud-Рак Wool

United States Mineral Wool Co., Chicago, IL

Mineral wool

Summit

Ohio Valley Rock Asphalt Co., Louisville, KY

Rock wool

Trade name

Manufacturer or distributor

Description or basic materials

Super-Felt

Johns-Manville Sales Corp., New York, NY

Rock wool

Supertemp Block

Eagle-Picher Sales Co., Cincinnati, OH

Mineral wood slab insulation

Temlok

Armstrong Cork Company, Lancaster, PA

Wood fiber insulating board

Temseal

Insulating

Sheathing

Armstrong Cork Company, Lancaster, PA

Wood fiber insulating board sheathing

Ten Test

International Fibre Board, Ltd., Gatineau, Quebec, Canada

Wood fiber insulating board

Textolite Foam

General Electric Company, Pittsfield, MA

Liquid rosin that foams to light, cellular mass many times original volume

Thermax

Celotex Corporation, Chicago, IL

Slab insulation made from wood fiber and magnesite cement

Therminsul

The Therminsul Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI

Rock wool

Thermofelt

American Hair & Felt Co., Chicago, IL

Blanket insulation made from cattle hair and asbestos fiber

Therm-O-Proof

Therm-O-Proof Ins. Mfg. Co., Chicago, IL

Mineral wool

Thermotex

A/В Varjag, Stockholm, Sweden

Wood fiber insulating board

Tomhave

Northern Home Improvement Co., Sandstone, MN

Rock wool

Torex

Torefors A/B, Tore, Sweden

Wood fiber insulating board

TYeetex

Mo and Domsjo Treetex A/B, Ornskolsdvik, Sweden

Wood fiber insulating board

Union Rock Wool

Union Rock Wood Corporation, Wabash, IN

Rock wool

U. S. Royal Insulation Board

U. S. Rubber Company, Akron, OH

Slab insulation made from rubber

United States Wool

United States Mineral Wool Co., Chicago, IL

Mineral wool

Ward Brand Rock Wool

Montgomery, Ward & Company, Chicago, IL

Rock wool

Waukesha

Waukesha Lime & Stone Co., Waukesha, WI

Rock wool

Trade name

Manufacturer or distributor

Description or basic materials

Weathertie

Sheathing

Johns-Manville Sales Corp., New York, NY

Wood fiber insulating board sheathing

Weatherwood

U. S. Gypsum Company, Chicago, IL

Wood fiber insulating board

Western Rock Wool

Western Rock Wool Corp., Huntington, IN

Rock wool

Wyolite

Wyolite Insulating Products Co., Cleveland, OH

Vermiculite

Yamaska

Yamaska Mills, Inc., St. Pierde-Bagot, Quebec, Canada

Wood fiber insulating board

Zonolite

Universal Zonolite Insulation Co., Chicago, IL

Vermiculite

Index

AAB Blue Maxx, 320-322 Absorptance, 248 ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists’), 98 ACMs (asbestos-containing materials), 353 ADA (airtight dry wall approach), 59 Additives, paint, 289-290 Adobe, 270

Aerogels, 377-381, 383 cost of, 381 history of, 378 properties of, 378-381 R-value of, 380 AHERA (Asbestos Hazard

Emergency Response Act), 362

Air:

convection via, 21-22 dry, 15

exfiltration, air, 47 infiltration, air, 47-48 leakage of, 34, 37 makeup, 68 R-values for, 408 Air barriers, 47 Air conditioning, 6-7 Air films, 23 Air Krete, 191-193

environmental considerations with, 193

Air Krete (Cont): fire resistance of, 193 health considerations with, 193

limitations of, 192-193 properties of, 192 R-value of, 192 and VOC emissions, 193 Air Krete, Inc., 192 Air retarders, 47-48 Airspace, 23

Airtight drywall approach (ADA), 59 Alabama, 66 Alaska, 66 Alcogel, 379 Aluminum, 5, 6 Ambient (sensible) temperature, 35 American Conference of

Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 98 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 24, 70, 82, 85, 97, 99, 120, 158, 192, 254

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air – Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 16, 42, 43,

63, 412 Amosite, 351 Arab oil embargo, 7

Arizona, 66 Arkansas, 66 Ark-Seal, Inc, 168 Asbestos, 3, 351-364 and asbestosis, 359 contractors, asbestos,

356-357

“Green Book,” 355 health considerations with, 358-360

history of, 352-353 home inspections, 356 homeowner sampling for, 358 identification of, 354-355 litigation involving, 362-363 and lung cancer, 352, 359-360 and mesothelioma, 360 products containing, 353 “Purple Book,” 355 regulation of, 360-362 removal of, 355-358 as thermal insulation, 353-354

in vermiculite, 112 Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA),

362

Asbestos School Hazard

Abatement Act (ASHAA), 361

Asbestos-containing materials (ACMs), 353 Asbestosis, 359

ASHRAE (see American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers)

Associations, manufacturers, 423-426

ASTM (see American Society for Testing and Materials) Atrium (courtyard) plan, 273 Attics, 57-58

Blow-In-Blanket System for, 169

Attics (Cont):

fiberglass batts/rolls in, 124-125, 138-140 fiberglass in, 102-104 loose-fill insulation in, 77, 79, 102-104

phase-change insulation in, 388-390

radiant barriers in, 252-256

R-values for, 57

vapor retarders in, 44, 45

Balsa batt, 5 Balsa wool, 5

Banner Rock Products Co., 4 Barrier-type method, 230-231 Basements:

fiberglass batts/rolls in, 127, 143-144

vapor retarders with, 46-47 walls, 54-56, 143-144 BASF Corporation, 214 Batts, 120 Beadboard, 210, 296 Benzene, 214, 219 BIBS (see Blow-In Blanket System)

Blanket insulation, 4, 27, 119 (see also Fiberglass batts and rolls)

Block walls, as vapor retarders, 47

Blow-In-Blanket Dry System, 169-170

Blow-In-Blanket System

(BIBS), 104, 157, 168-173 attics, 169

cathedral ceilings, 169 fire resistance of, 171 floors, 169

installation of, 171, 173 limitations of, 171 properties of, 170 R-value of, 170, 172

Blowing/foaming agent, 185 Blue board, 296 Board/paper products, 260-261 BOCA {see Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc.; Building Officials Code Administration)

Boron, 163

British thermal unit (Btu), 14 Building envelope: envelope compliance approach, 68 evolution of, 33-34 Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), 64-65

Building Officials Code

Administration (BOCA), 323 Bulk moisture, 34

С. P. Chemical Company, Inc., 197

CABO (Council of American Building Officials), 65 Cabot, Samuel, 4 Cabot’s Quilt, 4 CAF (compressed agricultural fiber), 229 California, 66, 82 California Bureau of Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation (CBHF), 86 Canadian Mortgage Housing Corporation (CMHC), 368 Capehart housing, 7 Capillary action, 34 Carcinogens:

expanded polystyrene, 214 extruded polystyrene, 219 fiberglass, 98, 128, 176 mineral wool, 146 urea formaldehyde foam insulation, 368, 370

Carcinogens (Cont.): wet spray rock wool/slag wool, 179-180 Cathedral ceilings, 57, 215 Blow-In-Blanket System with, 169

in earth homes, 275 fiberglass batts/rolls, 124, 140 and vapor retarders, 44-45 Cavity foundation materials, 55-56

CBHF (California Bureau of Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation), 86 Ceilings, 57

cellulose loose-fill insulation with, 90-91

fiberglass batts/rolls, 124-125 loose-fill insulation for, 79 {see also Cathedral ceilings) Cellular glass, 228 Cellular plastic, 185 Cellulose, 7, 8, 76-78 dense-pack, 83 loose-fill insulation, 80-96 application procedures for, 90-91

coverage requirements for, 90

environmental

considerations with, 84 fire resistance of, 85-87 health considerations with, 83-84

installation of, 87, 95-96 limitations of, 83 preliminary inspection for, 87-88

preparation for, 88-90 properties of, 82 R-value of, 83 sidewalls, 91-93 standards for, 81-82 vapor retarders with, 93-94 ventilation guidelines for, 95

Cellulose, loose-fill insulation (‘Cont.): weight of, 83

wet spray cellulose, 157-168 environmental

considerations with, 163

fire resistance of, 163 health considerations with, 162

installation of, 163-168 limitations of, 161 properties of, 158 R-value of, 161, 162 standards for, 158-161 Cellulose Insulation

Manufacturers Association (СІМА), 43-44, 81, 85-87, 163

Celotex Company, 6 Cenesto, 6

Center-of-cavity R-value (Rcc), 28

Ceramic coatings, 287-289 fire resistance of, 289 installation standards with, 289

limitations of, 288-289 properties of, 288 R-values of, 288 CertainTeed, 130 CFCs (see Chlorofluorocarbons) CFU (contoured foam underlayment), 229 “Chimney effect,” 301 Chimneys, 3, 103 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 186-187

Chromatropic acid test, 371 Chrysotile, 351

СІМА (see Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association) Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, 187

Clear-wall R-value (Rcw), 28

Climate:

and vapor retarders, 41-42 zone, climate, 67 Closed-cell foams, 185, 186 CMHC (Canadian Mortgage Housing Corporation),

368

Coatings, 40, 287-290 ceramic, 287-290 fire resistance of, 289 installation standards with, 289

limitations of, 288-289 properties of, 288 R-values of, 288 paint, 289-290 Cob, 269-270

Code of Federal Regulations, 71 Codes and standards, 63-71 American Society for Testing and Materials, 70 ASHRAE standards, 63-64 cellulose, wet spray, 158-161 cellulose loose-fill insulation, 81-82

Federal Trade Commission, 69 Home Energy Rating Systems Council, 69 Icynene, 191 IECC/MEC, 64-68 loose-fill insulation, 81-82 reflective insulation, 261-262 Cold climates, 41 Colorado, 66 Comfort, thermal, 13-17 and ASHRAE Standard 55, 16 definition of, 13 and humidity, 15-16 and thermoregulation, 13-15 Comfort envelope (ASHRAE), 412

Composite board insulation,

228- 229

Compressed agricultural fiber (CAF), 229

Compressed straw panels,

229- 230

Concrete block, 55, 56 Concrete slabs, vapor retarders with, 45

Condensation, 36-38 Conduction, 22, 247 ConForm, 320 Connecticut, 66 Construction water, 37 Consumer Product Safety Act, 71

Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), 71,

81, 82, 85, 90, 128, 176, 368 Continuous air/vapor retarder, 43

Contoured foam underlayment (CFU), 229

Convection, 21-22, 247 loops, convection, 77 loose-fill insulation, 77 Copper, 6 Cork, 3, 112

Corning Glass Company, 4-5 Cost(s):

of aerogels, 381 of foundations, 54 of gas-filled panels, 386 of radiant barriers, 257-258 of spray polyurethane foam, 196

of superinsulation, 60 of vacuum insulation panels, 384

Cotton insulation, 148-149 availability of, 149 fire resistance of, 149 properties of, 148-149 R-value of, 149 Council of American Building Officials (CABO), 65 Courtyard (atrium) plan, 273 CPSC (see Consumer Product Safety Commission)

Crawl spaces:

fiberglass batts/rolls, 125-127, 142-143

vapor retarders with, 45 Crocidolite, 351

Damp proofing, 55 Damp-spray cellulose, 157 Degree-days, 41 Delaware, 66 Dense-packing, 83 Density, and R-value, 26-27 Design densities, 27 Dew point, 36, 43 Dewar principal, 381-382 Dew-point temperature, 35 Dimensionally stable fiberglass (DS), 168, 173-177 Discontinuous air/vapor retarder, 43

DOE (see U. S. Department of Energy)

“Double blow” method, 105 Dow Chemical Company, 7,

215

Dry air, 15

Dry-bulb temperature, 34 DS (see Dimensionally stable fiberglass)

DuPont, 186 Dust, 15

Earth, 3, 269-283 homes, earth, 271-280 advantages of, 272-273 cathedral ceilings, 275 design of, 273-277 fire resistance of, 279-280 installation standards with, 279

limitations of, 277-279 properties of, 273-277 Pneumatically Impacted Stabilized Earth, 282 rammed, 280-282

Earth (Cont):

ventilation requirements of, 271

Earthquakes, 302 Earth-sheltered housing, 271-272

Earthships, 270, 282-283 Eel grass, 4

Egyptians, ancient, 3, 4 EIFS (see Exterior insulation and finish systems)

EIFS Industry Members Association (EIMA), 238 Electromagnetic spectrum, 245-246

Electromagnetic waves, 22 Elevational plan, 273-274 Embodied energy, 85, 163 Emissivity, 22-23, 249, 401 Emittance, 22-23, 249 Encapsulated batts, 129 Energy Conservation in New Building Design (ASHRAE Standard 90-1975), 63 Energy crisis, 7 Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), 8, 64-65 Energy-Efficient Design of New Low-Rise Residential Buildings (ASHRAE Standard 90.2), 64 Envelope compliance approach, 68

Environmental issues:

Air Krete, 193 cellulose, 84, 163 expanded polystyrene, 214 extruded polystyrene, 219 fiberglass, 99, 130, 174-177 foamed-in-place insulation, 186-187

gas-filled panels, 386 mineral wool, 109-110, 147 polyisocyanurate, 225 straw bale, 344

Environmental issues (Cont.): structural insulated panels, 305-307

tripolymer foam, 200 wet spray cellulose, 163 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 112, 130, 193, 208, 297, 399 EPACT (see Energy Policy Act of 1992)

EPA/DOE Energy Star
Program, 297

EPS (see Expanded polystyrene) Evacuated panels, 382 Exfiltration, air, 47 Expanded polystyrene (EPS), 209-214, 210, 296 beads, expanded polystyrene, 112

as carcinogen, 214 environmental considerations with, 214 limitations of, 214 properties of, 210-212 R-value of, 212-214 Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS), 210,

230- 238

installation of, 238 legal history, 232, 235, 236 limitations of, 237-238 properties of, 230-236 Extruded expanded polystyrene (XEPS), 209

Extruded polystyrene (XPS), 7, 209, 215-222, 296 as carcinogen, 219 with cathedral ceilings, 215 cold spots/streaking with, 221 environmental considerations with, 219

fire resistance of, 219 ghosting with, 221 installation of, 219-220 limitations of, 219

Extruded polystyrene (XPS)

(‘Cont.):

properties of, 215-218 R-value of, 219 Eye irritation: fiberglass, 98-99, 177 mineral wool, 109, 146 wet spray rock wool/slag wool, 180

Federal Energy Management Improvement Act (FEMIA), 8

Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 65

Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 24, 69 FEMIA (Federal Energy

Management Improvement Act), 8

FHA (Federal Housing Administration), 65 Fiber wallboards, 364 Fiberboard, 226-227 Fiberglass, 4-5, 76-79, 82, 96-105, 383

dimensionally stable, 173-177 environmental

considerations with, 174-177

eye irritation, 177 fire resistance of, 174 health considerations of, 176-177

installation of, 174-176 limitations of, 173-174 properties of, 173 respiratory irritation, 176 skin irritation, 177 environmental considerations with, 99, 130 fire resistance of, 99, 131 health considerations with, 97-99

properties of, 96-97

Fiberglass (Cont.):

R-value of, 97 in sidewalls, 104, 105 standards/practices for installation of, 99-105 in unfloored attics, 102-104 (see also Fiberglass batts and rolls)

Fiberglass batts and rolls, 119-144

in attics/ceilings, 124-125 in basements, 127 as carcinogen, 128 in cathedral ceilings, 124 characteristics of, 122 cotton, 148-149 in floors/crawl spaces, 125-127

formaldehyde, 129 health considerations with, 127-130

installation of, 132-144 attic rooms, 139-140 basement walls, 143-144 cantilevered overhang areas, 142

cathedral ceilings, 140 ceiling joists below attic, 138-139

face stapling, 135 floors, 140-142 guidelines, 132-134 heated crawl spaces, 142-143

inset stapling, 134-135 pressure fit, 136 sidewalls, 136-138 stapling, 134-136 unfaced insulation, 136 with vapor barriers, 142 with vapor retarders, 143 wire insulation hangers, 141-142

limitations of, 127 plastic fiber insulation, 148

Fiberglass batts and rolls (‘Cont.):

properties of, 120-122 rock and slag wool, 144-147 R-value of, 122-124 in sidewalls, 124 sizes, 120

vapor barriers with, 121, 142 as vapor retarder, 131 wire insulation hangers, 141-142 “Fiberizing,” 83 Fibrofelt, 5 Films, surface, 23 Fire resistance:

Air Krete, 193

Blow-In-Blanket System, 171 cellulose, 85-87, 163 ceramic coatings, 289 cotton insulation, 149 earth homes, 279-280 extruded polystyrene, 219 fiberglass, 99, 131, 174 Icynene, 191

mineral wool, 109-110, 147 polyisocyanurate, 225-226 radiant barriers, 257 spray polyurethane foam,

195

straw bale, 344-345 structural insulated panels, 301-302

tripolymer foam, 200 wet spray cellulose, 163 wet spray rock wool/slag wool, 180 Fireplaces, 3, 103 Flax, 5 Flaxlinum, 5 Floors, 57

Blow-In-Blanket System, 169 fiberglass batts/rolls, 125-127, 140-142

vapor retarders in, 45 Florida, 66

Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), 303 Fluffing, 79 Flywheel effect, 290 Foam insulation, and convection, 22 Foamboard, 215 Foamed-in-place insulation, 185-201

Air Krete, 191-193
environmental

considerations with, 193

fire resistance of, 193 health considerations with, 193

limitations of, 192-193 properties of, 192 R-value of, 192 CFCs in, 186-188 environmental considerations with, 186-187 health considerations with, 186

Icynene, 188-191 fire resistance of, 191 health considerations with, 191

limitations of, 190-191 properties of, 188, 190 R-value, 190 standards for, 191 installation of, 186 open – vs. closed-cell, 185-186 phenolic foam, 197 spray polyurethane foam, 193-196 cost of, 196 fire resistance of, 195 limitations of, 195 properties of, 194 R-value of, 194 tripolymer foam, 197-210 environmental considera­tions with, 200

Foamed-in-place insulation, tripolymer foam (Cont.): fire resistance of, 200 installation of, 200-201 limitations of, 198-200 properties of, 198 R-value of, 198 water-blown polyurethane, 196-197

Foam-Tech, Inc., 196 Foil-faced polyethylene insulation, 258-259 Forced convection, 21-22 Formaldehyde, 129, 366-371. (see also Urea formalde­hyde foam insulation) Foundations, 54-56 Franklin, Benjamin, 352 Free convection, 22 Freon, 186-187 Frigidaire, 6

FSEC (Florida Solar Energy Center), 303 FTC (see Federal Trade Commission)

Gamma rays, 246 Gaps, 54, 79

Gas-filled panels (GFPs), 385-387

availability of, 386-387 cost of, 386

installation of, 385-386 limitations of, 386 properties of, 385 General Electric, 6 General Motors, 6, 186 Geoform, 209 Georgia, 66

GFPs (see Gas-filled panels) Glass, cellular, 228 Granulated cork, 112 Greeks, ancient, 3 Green board, 296 “Green Book,” 355

Guarded hot box, 24 Guardian Fiberglass, Inc., 173

Habitat for Humanity, 149 Hall, С. C., 4 Hawaii, 4, 66 HCFCs (see

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons) Health issues:

Air Krete, 193 asbestos, 358-360 cellulose, 83-84, 162 fiberglass, 97-99, 127-130, 176-177

foamed-in-place insulation, 186

Icynene, 191 loose-fill insulation, 80 mineral wool, 107-109, 146-147

urea formaldehyde foam insulation, 370-371 wet spray cellulose, 162 wet spray rock wool/slag wool, 179-180

Heat:

flow, heat, 23-28

and density of material, 26-27

rate of (U-value), 23-24 resistance to (R-value),

24- 28

and temperature, 25 and thickness of material,

25- 26

in whole-wall systems, 28 gain, heat, 411 loss, heat foundations, 54 slab-on-grade foundations, 56

metabolic, 13-14 transfer, heat, 21-23, 247 causes of resistance to, 23 by conduction, 22

Heat: transfer, heat (Cont.): by convection, 21-22 by radiation, 22-23 resistance to, 23 Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), 277 duct insulation, 415-416 piping, 416

HERS (home energy rating systems), 69

HERSC (Home Energy Rating Systems Council), 69 HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), 196 Historical insulation products, 3-8, 351-371 asbestos, 351-364 health considerations with, 358-360

history of, 352-353 identification of, 354-355 litigation involving, 362-363

products containing, 353 regulation of, 360-362 removal of, 355-358 thermal insulation,

353-354 list of, 463-472 structural insulating board, 364-366

installation of, 366 properties of, 365-366 urea formaldehyde foam insulation, 366-371 health considerations with, 370-371

identification of, 369 installation of, 369-370 vapor retarders, 38-39 Home Energy Rating Systems Council (HERSC), 69 Home energy rating systems (HERS), 69

Hot water, piping for, 417 Housewrap, 48

HUD {see U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development)

Humidity, 15-16, 34-35, 42 HVAC {see Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons

(HCFCs), 186-187, 195, 208 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), 196

IARC {see International Agency for Research on Cancer) IBC {see International Building Code)

IC (insulation contact) rating, 139

ICBO {see International Conference of Building Officials)

ICC (International Code Council), 65 Iceland, 3

ICFs {see Insulating concrete forms)

Icynene:

fire resistance of, 191 health considerations with, 191

limitations of, 190-191 properties of, 188, 190 R-value of, 190 standards for, 191 and vapor retarders, 190 Icynene, Inc., 188 Idaho, 66

IECC {see International Energy Conservation Code)

Illinois, 66

Inch-pound (I-P) system, 24 Indiana, 66 Infiltration, air, 47-48 Infrared radiation, 245-246 Inside surface films, 23 Inspections: asbestos, 356

Inspections (Cont. ): cellulose, 87-88 MEC field inspection checklist, 420 Installation: of air retarders, 48 Blow-In-Blanket System,

171, 173

cellulose, 87, 95-96, 163-168 ceramic coatings, 289 earth homes, 279 exterior insulation and finish systems, 238 extruded polystyrene, 219-220

fiberglass, 99-105, 174-176 fiberglass batts/rolls, 132-144 foamed-in-place insulation, 186

gas-filled panels, 385-386 insulating concrete formwork, 323-328

mineral wool, 109-110, 147 radiant barriers, 251-256 straw bale, 334-342 structural insulated panels, 307-316

structural insulating board, 366

tripolymer foam, 200-201 urea formaldehyde foam insulation, 369-370 vacuum insulation panels, 384

of vapor retarders, 46-47 wet spray cellulose, 163-168 wet spray rock wool/slag wool, 180-181

INSULADD, 289-290 Insulating board, 364 Insulating concrete forms (ICFs), 215, 293, 316-328 installation of, 323-328 properties of, 317-321 R-value of, 321-323

Insulation contact rating (see IC rating)

Insulcot, 149 Insulite, 5-6

Integrated insulation systems, 293-345

insulating concrete formwork, 316-328

installation of, 323-328 properties of, 317-321 R-value of, 321-323 straw bale, 326-345 availability of, 345 environmental

considerations with, 344

fire resistance of, 344-345 history of, 328-329 in-fill system, 339-341 installation of, 334-342 limitations of, 343-344 mortar bale system, 341-342 Nebraska style of, 334-339 properties of, 329, 331-332 R-value of, 332-333 selection guidelines for, 333-334

structural considerations/ guidelines for, 342 structural insulated panels, 293-317

connections/joints, 310-313 electrical/plumbing, 313, 315-317 environmental

considerations with, 305-307

fire resistance of, 301-302 installation of, 307-316 manufacture of, 299 material properties of, 299-301

openings, 313-314 properties of, 294-301 R-value of, 302-305

Interior fiberboard, 364 Interior radiation control coating (IRCC), 262

International Agency for

Research on Cancer (IARC), 108, 109, 128, 146, 176 International Building Code (IBC), 43-44, 65-69, 86 International Code Council (ICC), 65

International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO), 64-65, 323 International Energy

Conservation Code (IECC), 25, 43, 64-68

International Residential Code (IRC), 43, 66, 86 Iowa, 66

IP (inch-pound) system, 24 IRC (see International Residential Code)

IRCC (interior radiation control coating), 262 Iso board, 222

Johns Manville Co., 4, 130

Kansas, 66 Kentucky, 66 Kincaid Act of 1904, 5 Kinetic energy, 22 Knee walls, 58, 104 Kool-Ply, 260

Ladder-type roof plate, 338 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), 380 Layers, material, 23 Lea, Dan, 85

Lead particles (in mineral wool), 146 Lights, recessed, 45 LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), 380

Load-bearing construction,

334

Location of insulation, 41-46, 53-54. (see also specific locations, e. g.: Attics) Loose-fill insulation, 75-112 in attics, 77, 79, 102-104 cellulose, 80-96

application procedures for, 90-95

and building codes, 95-96 coverage requirements with, 90 dense-pack, 83 environmental

considerations with, 84-85

fire resistance of, 85-87 guidelines for, 87 health considerations with, 83-84

limitations of, 83 preliminary inspection for, 87-88

preparation for, 88-90 properties of, 82 R-value of, 83 standards for, 81-82 weight considerations with, 83

characteristics of, 75 convective heat loss with, 77 cork, 112

expanded polystyrene beads, 112

fiberglass, 96-105
environmental

considerations with, 99 fire resistance of, 99 health considerations with, 97-99

limitations of, 97 properties of, 96-97 R-value of, 97 in sidewalls, 104, 105

Loose-fill insulation, fiberglass (‘Cont.):

standards/practices for installation of, 99-105 in unfloored attics, 102-104 fluffing of, 79

health considerations with, 80 mineral wool, 105-110 environmental considera­tions with, 109-110 fire resistance of, 109-110 health considerations with, 107-109

limitations of, 107 properties of, 107 R-value of, 107 standards/practices for

installation of, 109-110 weight of, 107

moisture resistance of, 77-79 Perlite, 110-111 safety guidelines for, 79 settling of, 77 shavings, 112 Vermiculite, 111-112 voids/gaps in, 79 weight of, 76-77 Louisiana, 66 Low-E coatings, 262-263 Low-E glass, 263 Lung cancer, 352, 359-360

Mac Millan Research, Ltd., 199-200 Maine, 66 Makeup air, 68 Man-made mineral fibers (MMMFs), 96, 106, 119,

168, 177

Man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs), 96, 106, 119, 144-145, 168, 177, 227 Manufacturers, 428-460 of air retarders, 428-430 associations of (list), 423-426

Manufacturers (Cont.): of cellulose, 430-433 of cementitious foam insulation, 433 of coatings, 433-434 of earth insulation products, 434-435

of EIFS, 436-437 of fiberglass, 437-438 of ICF, 438-439 of perlite, 439-442 of poly icy nene, 442 of polyisocyanurate,

442-443

of polystyrene, 443-446 of polyurethane, 446-452 of radiant barriers, 452-454 of reflective insulation, 454-455

of rock wool, 456 ofSIPs, 456-457 of straw insulation products, 457-458

of tripolymer foam, 458-459 of vapor retarders, 459 of vermiculite, 460 Manufacturer’s Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), 128, 147 Maryland, 66 Mass insulations, 22 Massachusetts, 66 Material layers, 23 MEC (see Model Energy Code) MECcheck Manual, 68 MECcheck Prescriptive Packages, 68 MECcheck Software, 68 Membranes, 40 MEPS (molded expanded polystyrene), 210 Mesothelioma, 360 Metabolic heat, 13-14 Michigan, 66

Milam Building (San Antonio, TX), 6

Mineral fiber, 4, 227, 383 properties of, 227 R-value of, 227 Mineral powder, 383 Mineral wool, 4, 76-79, 105-110 availability of, 147 as batt product, 144-147 as carcinogen, 146 environmental considerations with, 109-110, 147 fire resistance of, 109-110, 147

health considerations with, 107-109, 146-147 installation of, 147 limitations of, 107 properties of, 107, 146 R-value of, 107 standards/practices for

installation of, 109-110 weight of, 107 (see also Rock wool; Slag wool; Wet spray rock wool/slag wool) Minnesota, 55, 66, 82 Mississippi, 66 Missouri, 66 MMMFs (see Man-made mineral fibers)

MMVFs (see Man-made
vitreous fibers)

Model Code for Energy Conservation, 64 Model Energy Code (MEC), 25, 64-68

basic requirements, 419 field inspection checklist, 420 Moisture:

loose-fill insulation, 77-79 migration of, 34, 37 problems with, 36-38 Molded expanded polystyrene (MEPS), 210 Montana, 66

Montreal Protocol, 187, 195

MSDS (see Manufacturer’s Safety Data Sheet)

Mud brick, 270

NAHB (see National Association of Homebuilders)

NAIM A (see North American Insulation Manufacturers Association)

National Association of Homebuilders (NAHB),

170, 194

National Building Code, 65 National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards (NCSBCS), 64-65

National Institute of

Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 80, 180 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),

131

National Research Council of Canada (NRCC), 163, 235 National Toxicology Program (NTP), 128, 176 NCSBCS (see National

Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards)

Nebraska, 5, 66 Nevada, 66 New Hampshire, 66 New Jersey, 66 New Mexico, 66 New York, 66 Newspapers, 83, 85 NIOSH (see National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health)

NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology), 131

North American Insulation Manufacturers Association (NAIMA), 43, 87, 99, 100, 102, 105, 109-110, 147, 251 North Carolina, 66 North Dakota, 66 Norway, 3

NRCC (see National Research Council of Canada)

NTP (see National Toxicology Program)

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 98, 101-102, 109, 128, 132, 147, 174, 362 ODS (ozone-depleting substances), 187 Ohio, 66 Oklahoma, 66

Old insulation, identification of, 402

Older structures, 33 Open-cell foams, 185-186 Open-celled foams, 383 Oregon, 66

Oriented strandboard (OSB), 260, 295, 306

OSHA (see Occupational Safety and Health Administration) Outside surface films, 23 Overblow, 100 Owens Corning, 130 Owens-Illinois, 4 Ozone layer, 187 Ozone-depleting substances (ODS), 187

Paints, 262-263 additives, 289-290 as vapor retarder, 40 ParPac system, 93 Partnership for Advanced Technology in Housing (PATH), 294

Payback period (foundations), 54 PCMs (see Phase-change materials)

PEL (permissible exposure level), 370

Penetrational plan, 273, 275 Pennsylvania, 66 PEPs (powder evacuated panels), 382

Perlite, 7, 110-111, 226, 383 properties of, 226 R-value of, 110-111, 226 Perm ratings, 39-40, 42 Perm (unit), 39 Permeability, 77-78, 400 Permeance, 39 Permissible exposure level (PEL), 370

Phase-change materials (PCMs), 387-390 phase-change attic insulation, 388-390

phase-change gypsum wallboard, 388-390 properties of, 387 Phenolic foam, 228 properties of, 197, 228 R-value of, 228 Philco-York, 6 PIMA (Polyisocyanurate

Insulation Manufacturers Association), 225 Piping:

hot water, 417 HVAC, 416

PIR (polyisocyanurate foam), 221

PISE (Pneumatically Impacted Stabilized Earth), 282 Plastic: cellular, 185 foam, plastic, 185 Plastic fiber insulation, 148, 390-391 Pliny, 3, 352

Pneumatically Impacted

Stabilized Earth (PISE),282 Polyethylene vapor retarders, 40 Polyiso, 222 Polyiso foam, 221 Polyisocyanurate, 222-226 environmental considerations with, 225

fire resistance of, 225-226 limitations of, 225 properties of, 222-224 R-value of, 224-225 Polyisocyanurate foam (PIR), 221

Polyisocyanurate Insulation Manufacturers Association (PIMA), 225 Polysteel, 320-322, 326 Polystyrene beads, expanded, 112

Polyurethane (PUR), 221-222 Post and beam style, 340 Postindustrial recycling, 147 Posttensioning, 339 Poured concrete walls, 47 Powder evacuated panels (PEPs), 382 Precompressing, 339 Preferred Foam Products, 196 Protective coatings (walls), 55 Psychrometer, 34 Psychrometric chart, 34 Psychrometry, 35 PUR (see Polyurethane)

“Purple Book,” 355 Purpose of thermal insulation, 53

Quick reference insulation charts, 397-398

Radiant barriers, 246, 250-258 in attic locations, 252-256 cost of, 257-258 fire ratings of, 257

Radiant barriers (Cont.): installation of, 251-256 limitations of, 256-257 properties of, 250-251 R-value of, 250-251 Radiation, 22-23, 245-250 Radio waves, 245 Radon gas, 144 Rain-screen system, 55, 231 Rammed earth, 270, 280-282 limitations of, 282 properties of, 281 stabilized, 270

Rcc (center-of-cavity R-value), 28 R-Control Insulated Concrete Forms, 319-320, 321, 324, 326

Rcw (clear-wall R-value), 28 RECD (Rural Economic and Community Development), 65

Recessed lights, 45 Reference sources, 426-428 Reflectance (reflectivity), 23, 250 Reflective insulation, 5, 246-247, 258-264 board/paper products, 260-261

foil-faced polyethylene insulation, 258-259 low-E glass, 263 paints as, 262-263, 287-290 properties of, 258 R-value of, 260 Sailshades, 263-264 standards for, 261-262 Relative humidity, 34-35 Renovations, 46 Resin Technology Company, 196 Respiratory irritation: fiberglass, 99, 128, 176 mineral wool, 109, 146-147 wet spray rock wool/slag wool, 180

Reynolds Wrap, 247 Rhode Island, 66 Rigid board insulation, 6, 207-238

cellular glass, 228 composite board insulation,

228- 229

compressed straw panels,

229- 230

contoured foam underlay – ment, 229

expanded polystyrene, 209-214 environmental

considerations with, 214

limitations of, 214 properties of, 210-212 R-value of, 212-214 exterior insulation and finish systems, 230-238 installation of, 238 legal history, 232, 235, 236 limitations of, 237-238 properties of, 230-236 extruded polystyrene, 215-222

cold spots/streaking with, 221

environmental

considerations with, 219

fire resistance of, 219 installation of, 219-220 limitations of, 219 properties of, 215-218 R-value of, 219 mineral fiber, 227 perlite, 226 phenolic foam, 228 polyisocyanurate, 222-226 environmental

considerations with, 225

fire resistance of, 225-226

Rigid board insulation,

polyisocyanurate (Cont.): limitations of, 225 properties of, 222-224 R-value of, 224-225 polyurethane, 221-222 wood fiber, 226-227 Rock wool, 4, 6, 82, 96, 105-110, 144-147, 177-181. (see also Wet spray rock wool/slag wool)

Romans, ancient, 3 Roof plate, 336, 338 Roofs, vapor retarders in, 44 Rural Economic and

Community Development (RECD), 65

R-value, stable (stabilized), 212 R-Value Rule, 69 R-value(s), 24-28 AAB Blue Maxx, 321-322 aerogels, 380 air, 408 Air Krete, 192 attics, 57

basement walls, 55 Blow-In-Blanket Dry System, 169-170

Blow-In-Blanket System,

170, 172

calculations of, 409 cellulose, 83, 90, 161, 162 center-of-cavity, 28 ceramic coatings, 288 clear-wall, 28

of common building materials, 406-407

contoured foam underlay – ment, 229

cotton insulation, 149 definition of, 24 and density, 26-27 expanded polystyrene, 212-214

extruded polystyrene, 219

R-value(s) (Cont.):

factors affecting, 25-28 fiberglass, 97, 122-124 floors, 57 Icynene, 190

information regarding, 24 insulating concrete formwork, 321-323 low-E glass, 263 measurement of, 24 mineral fiber, 227 mineral wool, 107 paint additives, 290 perlite, 110-111, 226 phenolic foam, 228 polyisocyanurate, 224-225 Polysteel, 321 radiant barriers, 250-251 R-Control Insulated Concrete Form, 321 recommended, 405 reflective insulation, 260 Sailshades, 264 slab-on-grade foundations, 56 SmartBlock, 321 spray polyurethane foam,

194

steady-state, 24 straw bale, 332-333 structural insulated panels, 302-305

superinsulation, 59 and temperature, 25 and thickness, 25-26 tripolymer foam, 198 vacuum insulation panels, 383-384

Vermiculite, 111-112 walls, 57

wet spray cellulose, 161, 162 wet spray rock wool/slag wool, 179 whole-wall, 28 wood fiber, 227 Rww (whole-wall R-value), 28

Safety issues, 79. {see also Health issues)

Sailshades, 263-264 Sandwich panels, 293 SBCCI {see Southern Building Code Congress International)

Scientific Certification Systems (SCS), 130 Sea grass, 4

Sensible (ambient) temperature, 35

Settling (loose-fill insulation), 77 Shavings, wood, 112 Shivering, 14 Sidewalls:

cellulose loose-fill insulation, 91-93

fiberglass, 104, 105, 124, 136-138 Silica, 383

SIPA (Structural Insulated Panel Association), 294 SIPs {see Structural insulated panels)

Skin, 14 Skin irritation: fiberglass, 98-99, 129, 177 mineral wool, 108-109, 146 wet spray rock wool/slag wool, 180

Slab-on-grade foundations, 56 Slag wool, 6, 105-110, 144-147, 177-181. {see also Wet spray rock wool/slag wool) SmartBlock, 320, 321, 326 Software, 67, 68 Sound transmission class (STC), 322 South Carolina, 66 South Dakota, 66 Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI), 64-65, 323 Southface Energy Institute, 40

SPF (see Spray polyurethane foam)

Spray polyurethane foam (SPF), 186, 193 cost of, 196 fire resistance of, 195 limitations of, 195 properties of, 194 R-value of, 194 Sprayed-in-place insulation, 155-181

Blow-In-Blanket System, 168-173

fire resistance of, 171 installation of, 171, 173 limitations of, 171 properties of, 170 R-value of, 170, 172 cellulose, wet spray, 157-168 environmental

considerations with, 163

fire resistance of, 163 health considerations with, 162

installation of, 163-168 limitations of, 161 properties of, 158 R-value of, 161, 162 standards for, 158-161 fiberglass, dimensionally stable, 173-177 environmental

considerations with, 174-177

fire resistance of, 174 health considerations of, 176-177

installation of, 174-176 limitations of, 173-174 properties of, 173 limitations of, 156 rock wool/slag wool, wet spray, 177-181 fire resistance of, 180

Sprayed-in-place insulation, rock wool/slag wool, wet spray (Cont.)

health considerations with, 179-180

installation of, 180-181 limitations of, 179 properties of, 178 R-value of, 179 spray-on-fiberglass, 168 Spray-on-fiberglass, 168 Stabilized rammed earth, 270 Stable (stabilized) R-value,

212, 224

Standard Building Code, 65 Standard Practice for

Installation of Cellulosic and Mineral Fiber Loose – Fill Thermal Insulation, 82 Standards (see Codes and standards)

STC (sound transmission class), 322

Steady-state R-value, 24 Steam, 34 Steaming, 36 Stramit, 229 Straw, 4

Straw bale, 326-345 availability of, 345 environmental considerations with, 344

fire resistance of, 344-345 history of, 328-329 in-fill system, 339-341 installation of, 334-342 laid flat, 334 laid on edge, 334 limitations of, 343-344 mortar bale system, 341-342 Nebraska style of, 334-339 properties of, 329, 331-332 R-value of, 332-333 selection guidelines for, 333-334

Straw bale (Cont): straw-clay building, 334 structural considerations/ guidelines for, 342 Straw bale construction, 5,

293

Straw-clay building, 334 Stressed skins, 293 Stress-skin panels, 293 Structural bale, 334 Structural foam panels, 293 Structural Insulated Panel Association (SIPA), 294 Structural insulated panels (SIPs), 208, 215, 293-317 connections/joints, 310-313 and earthquakes, 302 electrical/plumbing, 313, 315-317

environmental considerations with, 305-307 fire resistance of, 301-302 installation of, 307-316 manufacture of, 299 material properties of, 299-301

openings, 313-314 properties of, 294-301 R-value of, 302-305 Structural insulating board, 226,364-366 installation of, 366 properties of, 365-366 Structural vapor diffusion retarders, 40 “Stud scrubber,” 158, 166 Styrofoam, 7, 215, 296 Sulfite screenings, 6 SuperGreen, 196 Superinsulation, 59 Surface films, 23 “Survival blanket,” 247 SVFs (see Synthetic vitreous fibers)

Sweating, 14, 36

Synthetic stucco, 230 Synthetic vitreous fibers

(SVFs), 101-102, 106, 119, 147, 174, 177, 181

TechShield, 260 Temperature:

and relative humidity, 35 and R-value, 25 Tennessee, 66 Termites, 55 Texas, 66

Thermal comfort (see Comfort, thermal)

Thermal drift, 212 Thermal envelope, 36, 53. (see also Building envelope) Thermal-lag effect, 290 Thermoregulation, 13-15 Thickness effect, 25-26 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 361

Tripolymer foam, 197-210 environmental considerations with, 200

fire resistance of, 200 installation of, 200-201 limitations of, 198-200 properties of, 198 R-value of, 198 TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act), 361

UBCs (see Uniform Building Codes)

UFFI (see Urea formaldehyde foam insulation)

UL (Underwriter’s Laboratory), 301

UltraFit DS, 173 Ultraviolet radiation (UVB), 187, 246

Underground housing, 272 Underwriter’s Laboratory (UL), 301

Uniform Building Codes (UBCs), 65, 323 United States Federal Trade Commission’s Labeling and Advertising of Home Insulation Rule, 100 Urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI), 8, 60, 186, 366-371 as carcinogen, 368, 370 health considerations with, 370-371

history of, 366-371 identification of, 369 installation of, 369-370 U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), 40, 55, 64-65, 68, 250, 297

U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 59, 65 Utah, 66

U-value (U-factor), 23-24, 67, 409

UVB (see Ultraviolet radiation)

Vacuum insulation panels (VIPs), 381-385 cost of, 384 installation of, 384 limitations of, 384-385 properties of, 382-383 R-value of, 383-384 Vapor barriers, 33

fiberglass batts/rolls as, 121, 142

paints as, 40 Vapor diffusion, 34, 37 Vapor diffusion retarders, 33, 40 Vapor retarders, 33-47

cellulose, wet spray, 158, 167 cellulose loose-fill insulation, 93-94

definition of, 33 and dew point, 36

Vapor retarders (Cont.): fiberglass batts/rolls, 131,

143

history of, 38-39 Icynene, 190 installation of, 46-47 location of, 41-46 and migration of water vapor/moisture, 34 and moisture problems, 36-38 and perm ratings, 39-40 and relative humidity, 34-35 types of, 40

wet spray cellulose, 158, 167 Vapor-pressure differential, 41 “Vent skin,” 255-256 Vermiculite, 111-112 Vermont, 66

VIPs (see Vacuum insulation panels)

Virginia, 66 Visible light, 246 Voids, 54, 79

W. R. Grace Company, 111-112, 354

Wallboard, 76-77, 83 Walls, 57 basement, 54-56 knee, 58

thermal lag time with, 410 vapor retarders in, 47 whole-wall systems, 28 Warm climates, 42 Washington, D. C., 66 Washington State, 66 Water heaters, 418 Water table, 56 Water vapor, 34, 39, 77-78 Water-blown polyurethane, 196-197

Water-managed, 231 Water-stabilized cellulose, 157 Wattle and daub, 270 Weathermaker, 6

Weight:

of cellulose, 83 of loose-fill insulation,

76-77, 83

of mineral wool, 107 West Virginia, 66 Wet spray cellulose, 157-168 application of, 164-167 environmental considerations with, 163

fire resistance of, 163 health considerations with, 162

installation of, 163-168 installation precautions/ limitations, 167-168 limitations of, 161 and paint, 158 properties of, 158 recycling of, 166 R-value of, 161, 162 standards for, 158-161 vapor retarder, 167 and vapor retarders, 158 and vinyl wallcoverings, 158 Wet spray rock wool/slag wool: as carcinogen, 179-180 eye irritation, 180 fire resistance of, 180 health considerations with, 179-180

Wet spray rock wool/slag wool 0Cont.):

installation of, 180-181 limitations of, 179 properties of, 178 respiratory irritation, 180 R-value of, 179 skin irritation from, 180 Wet-bulb temperature, 34 Whole-wall R-value (Rww),

28

Whole-wall systems, 28 Willis Carrier, 6 Wisconsin, 66 Wood fiber, 226-227 properties of, 226-227 R-value of, 227 Wood shavings, 5, 112 World War II, 7 Wyoming, 66

XEPS (extruded expanded polystyrene), 209 XPS (see Extruded polystyrene)

X-rays, 246

York, 6

Zonolite, 111-112, 354 Zostera marina, 4

[1] As air warms, its ability to hold a greater quantity of water vapor

increases.

[2] As air cools, its capacity to retain moisture decreases.

For example, air at 68°F (20°C) with 0.216 oz of water (H20) per pound of air (14.8 g H20/kg air) has a 100 percent relative humidity. The same air at 59°F (15°C) reaches 100 percent relative humidity with only 0.156 oz of water per pound of air (10.7 g H20/kg air). The colder air loses the capacity to hold about 28 percent of the previous temper­ature’s airborne moisture. This moisture will condense on the first cold surface it encounters. If this surface is within an exterior wall cavity, for instance, wet insulation and framing may be an early result.3

When the relative humidity of air approaches about 92 to 98 percent, a drop in temperature of as little as one degree, or the addition of a small amount of water vapor, will cause the vapor to condense and pre­cipitate from the air. In nature, this is known as rain, sleet, or snow.

[4] Moisture should be removed by drainage, venting, or isolating mois­ture-generating sources.

[5] Moist air should be kept away from cold surfaces within walls, floors, or roof by means of a vapor barrier.

[6] Sufficient insulation should be used on the cold side of assemblies to keep critical surfaces warmer than the dew point temperature.

[7] Heaters and recessed light fixtures must not be covered by the insulation unless the fixture has a direct contact rating. It is recommended that a minimum of 3" of airspace be maintained between any fixtures and the blocking.

[8] Cold air returns and combustion air intakes for hot air fur­naces must not be blocked or insulation be installed in a man­ner that would allow it to be drawn into the system.

[9] Insulation must not be in contact with chimneys or flues. A minimum of 3" of airspace must be maintained, with blocking used to retain the insulation.

[10] The homeowner should be advised that in tightly constructed homes or when insulating existing homes that have fuel-fired heating systems within the living area or basement, an air duct must be installed between the furnace room and a well – ventilated outside area to provide combustion air. A local heating contractor should be contacted for proper duct size and installation.

[11] The homeowner should be advised that the relative humidity within the living area should be kept below 40 percent when outside temperatures fall below 32°F (0°C).

[12] Do not touch or disturb asbestos material on walls, ceilings, pipes, or boilers.

[13] Do not allow children to play near pipes or furnaces that have friable asbestos insulation around them. Just tossing a ball against asbestos material could release many invisible fibers.

[14] Do not let the dog or cat run free in a basement with asbestos materials. The animal can pick up asbestos fibers on its fur and shake them off in other areas of the home.

[15] Do not dust, sweep, or vacuum debris you think contains asbestos. (Remember: A regular vacuum cleaner allows asbestos fibers to pass right through it and reenter the room.)

[16] Do not hang plants or other things from ceilings that may con­tain asbestos.

[17] Do not tack or hammer nails into walls made from asbestos.

[18] Do not allow curtain rods or room dividers hanging on ceiling tracks to bump or brush into walls or ceilings.

Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems

Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are multilayered exterior wall systems that are used in both commercial and resi­dential construction. Sometimes referred to as synthetic stucco, the basic five primary components include a rigid insulation board, an adhesive to attach the insulation board to a suitable substrate, a reinforcing mesh that is embedded in a base coat over the insulation board, and a textured finish. EIFS (pronounced “eefs” or “eefus”) were developed in Europe in the early 1950s and were introduced to the United States around 1969. They were first used on commercial buildings and later on homes. EIFS currently account for about 17 percent of the U. S. commercial exterior wall market and about 3.5 percent of the residential wall market (Fig. 11.11).

Compressed-Straw Panels Product description

Compressed-straw panels are not new. The process for producing compressed agricultural fiber (CAF) panels was invented in Sweden in 1935 by Theodor Dieden and later developed into a commercial product in Britain under the name Stramit by Torsten Mossesson in the late 1940s. Although the original patents have expired on the technology for producing compressed straw panels, numerous companies using the Stramit process are popular in Europe and Australia.

As revealed during the short-lived U. S. manufacture of Stramit panels, straw is compressed under a high temperature of approx­imately 390°F. The straw fibers become limp and form around each other, essentially “bonding” together without any adhesives. The panels ranged in thickness from 2 to 4" and were faced with heavy-weight kraft paper. Most of the products were prerouted for electrical wiring, and clips were sold to join panels securely together.

Several companies that have produced compressed straw panels and straw core stressed-skin panels have had difficulty continuing operations due to exaggerated R-values, inflated shipping costs, and poor marketing strategies. Nevertheless, cabinet carcasses, carpet underlayment, and interior sheathing products have started to achieve a small market share in the United States. It remains to be seen if a viable straw-based insulation board product will become a mainstay in residential construction.

Contoured Foam Underlayment Product description

Contoured foam underlayment (CFU) is a drop-in rigid foam insu­lation product that is custom made to fit snugly behind different styles of vinyl siding. This new product is intended to improve the rigidity of vinyl siding as well as its resistance to denting and warping. CFU typically is made from XPS foam that provides an li­vable of 2.8 to 3.3 per inch and has a permeance rating of 5 (it is not a vapor barrier). Installation is relatively simple because the CFU is placed behind the siding and cut to size as necessary. The siding is snapped into its final position and nailed to the structure in accordance with the siding manufacturer’s recommendations.

CFU is also available from some manufacturers as an integrat­ed, fused vinyl siding and foam product. The installation is similar to conventional siding except that two courses go up at once and special accessories are used for corner and trim details.

Composite Product description

Composite board insulation is usually is made of two different insu­lation materials that are laminated together. Mainly used for low – slope roofing, a typical example of a composite board is PIR or EPS combined with perlite or wood fiberboard. Composites also can incorporate insulation with other roofing materials, such as PIR laminated to a nailable substrate such as oriented strandboard.

The advantage of using a composite board is that it combines the benefits of two different materials in one board. Composites gener­ally are compatible with bitumens and are impact-resistant. The fire, moisture, and thermal resistance can vary depending on the materials used.4

Cellular Glass Product description

Cellular glass insulation is a rigid roof insulation board composed of heat-fused, closed glass cells blown with hydrogen sulfide. Available for low-slope roofing systems, the boards typically have kraft paper facers applied to the surfaces after the material is formed. Cellular glass is compatible with bitumen and other adhe­sives and is fire-resistant. The board itself is moisture-resistant, but the paper facers, to which other materials are adhered, will deteriorate if wetted. The boards are rigid and require care in han­dling so that they do not crack or spall. The thermal resistance of cellular glass is stable but not as high as it is for other insulation materials.4

Phenolic Foam Product description

Based on research conducted for this book, the phenolic foam insu­lation board industry in both Canada and the United States declined rapidly and essentially disappeared in 1993-1994. Incidents of deck corrosion have been reported in cases where the insulation is in direct contact with steel roof decks and moisture is present.11

Phenolic foam board products were manufactured from phenol formaldehyde resin as an open – or closed-cell product. For several years, a high-R-value phenolic rigid insulation board was on the market. This closed-cell insulation had a typical R-value of 8.3 per inch. Because the foam boards often shrank, warped, or decom­posed, manufacturers stopped making them.12

Mineral Fiber Product description

Although the term mineral fiber historically refers to rock wool and slag wool, fiberglass products are also included in this cate­gory. These are also called man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs), referring to the glassy, noncrystalline nature of these materials. A binding agent helps form the fibers into a rigid insulation board to be used for low-slope roofing systems. A glass-mat facer is applied to the top surface of the board. Mineral fiber insulation is compat­ible with bitumens and other adhesives, fire-resistant, dimension – ally stable, and compatible with other roofing materials. Mineral fiber insulation is not as sensitive to moisture as fiberglass insu­lation because the separate mineral fibers absorb (but retain) only minimal moisture.

Fiberglass insulation board is a slightly modified product. After bonding fiberglass into a board shape, asphalt is used to bond a kraft paper facer to the top surface of the board. The paper facer will deteriorate if wetted, and the fiberglass board will retain water, reducing the thermal value.

The thermal resistance of mineral fiber is stable and has a rela­tively high R-value compared with other insulation materials. Mineral fiber board has a low compressive strength and is not rec­ommended for loose-laid, ballasted roofing systems or mechanical­ly fastened roofing membranes.4

Wood Fiber Product description

Fiberboard, historically called structural insulating board, is made primarily from wood, cane, or other organic fibers combined with a variety of binders.10 Fiberboard was popular during the two decades after World War II. During manufacture, the raw material is reduced to a pulp, and then the fibers are chemically treated with waterproofing materials. Some boards are impregnated with asphalt either during or after the manufacturing process for mois­ture resistance. Sheet size is typically V2, 25/32, or Iм, with standard lengths of 8 ft. Historically, this board type was used for interior finishes, sheathing, roof insulation, and roof deck planks.10

When used for low-slope roofing systems, the surfaces of the boards can be left plain, coated with asphalt, or impregnated with asphalt. Wood fiberboard is compatible with bitumens and adhe­sives, is impact-resistant, and is dimensionally stable. The materi­al is flammable and must be protected from an ignition source. This insulation will hold water and must be protected from moisture. The thermal resistance of wood fiberboard is stable, but the R-val- ue is relatively low.4

Perlite Board Product description

As discussed in Chap. 7, perlite is a granular-type insulation made from a naturally occurring silicous rock quarried mainly in the western United States. Perlite is different from other volcanic glasses because when the crushed ore is heated to a suitable point in its softening range, it expands from 4 to 20 times its original volume.

Used for low-slope roofing systems, perlite insulation is manu­factured as a rigid board that is composed of these expanded vol­canic minerals combined with organic fibers and binders. An asphalt emulsion is used to treat the top surface to inhibit the absorption of bitumens. Perlite is compatible with bitumens and other adhesives, fire-resistant, dimensionally stable, and compati­ble with other roofing materials. The board will withstand impact, but care must be taken when handling the boards because they can break easily. The thermal resistance of the insulation is stable, but it has a relatively low R-value. Typically, perlite is not used with ballasted, loose-laid membranes because the board will readily absorb moisture.4