Constructability—Penetration Resistance and Toughness

Building construction sites are not hospitable environments for easily damaged materials. While it is common to specify protection boards over waterproofing, these protection materials do not render the waterproofing invulnerable to impact from dropped tools and steel reinforcing bars. Pneumatic placement of concrete propels concrete aggregate with considerable velocity at typically unprotected waterproofing membranes. Refer to Table 3 for a review of standards.

ASTM Test Method for Rubber Property—Durometer Hardness (ASTM D 2240) is commonly used to measure hardness of materials. ASTM D 2240 testing uses a durometer to press a pin (indentor) into a specimen. ASTM D 2240 defines twelve different shapes and diameters of durometer indentors, which are selected based upon the relative hardness of the material. For example, a Type OO is referenced in the ASTM standard for cold liquid-applied materials, and a Type A is referenced in the ASTM standards for single-ply waterproofing. Note that several manufacturers of cold liquid-applied materials provide hard­ness information using the Type A durometer, perhaps because it is a more readily available device. Because it excludes use with coated fabrics, such as PVC, ASTM D 2240 does not appear to be useful for setting standards across material types.

The usefulness of the CAN/CGSB-37.50-M89 toughness test appears to be limited to comparing hot liquid-applied materials.

The dynamic impact testing in CAN/CGSB-37.54-95 and the puncture resistance testing in ASTM Test Methods for Water Vapor Retarders Used in Contact with Earth Under Concrete Slabs, on Walls, or as Ground Cover (ASTM E 154) appear to be more suitable methods of evaluating resistance to construction site damage. In the ASTM E 154 test, a steel rod 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter moves at rate of 6 mm (0.25 in.)/min against an unsupported membrane until visible failure occurs. In the CAN/CGSB-37.54-95 dynamic impact test, a falling weight strikes a steel rod 11.3 mm (0.4 in.) in diameter, which is placed on

TABLE 4—Constructability—Requirements related to weather requirements during installation. Values and units are stated in the table as they are expressed in the standards.



Test Method

Cold Liquid-Applied


Condition fluid materials for 24 h at standard conditions prior to forming specimens. Condition specimens for 14 days at standard conditions.

Some tests require oven curing. Testing is typically done at standard conditions. For low temperature testing, specimens are then held for 24 h at -26°C (-15°F)

Same as above

ASTM C 836 and referenced standards

Hot Liquid-Applied


Depending on the test, allow the specimen to condition at room temperature for 16 to 72 h


Single Ply Membranes

ASTM D 6134, Type I

-45°С (-49°F), max.

Brittleness temperature, ASTM D 6134

ASTM D 6134, Type II

-40°C (-40°F), max.

Brittleness temperature, ASTM D 6134

CAN/CGSB-37.54-95, Type 4, Class C

No cracking at -40± 1 °С

Low temperature flexibility, ASTM D 2136

CAN/CGSB-37-GP-52M, Type 2, Class В

No cracking at ~40°C(-40°F)

Low temperature flexibility. CAN/CGSB-37-GP-52M

a membrane specimen, which is supported by a rubber stopper. A specimen passes the CGSG test if it does not leak after being impacted and then placed under a 500 mm (19.7 in.) column of water.