State of the Art

Adhesives have long since been used successfully for load bearing connections in steel, timber, polymer, and railroad track construction. In structural glazing, adhesive joints have been considered for certain projects. Early applications using transparent adhesives are described in [6-8] for example. The glass beams with their glued corner joints at Broadfield House Glass Museum in Kingswin- ford (UK) can be regarded as a milestone in load bearing adhesive design [9];


15 years after being erected, the adhesive joints of this structure are still show­ing no signs of any deterioration [10]. Another example of the successful use of adhesives in structural glazing is the Glass Cube in Harlem (Netherlands) [11]. Samples exposed to the weather for many years were used by Blandini [12] to investigate the use of adhesives in frameless glass shells. An ionomer interlayer that has become established in recent years has positive material properties that have resulted in numerous innovations in structural glazing [13,14].

If we are to improve durability, then special attention must be paid to the cleaning and pretreatment of the surfaces of the components to be joined to­gether. The results of numerous studies of these aspects show that removing or­ganic contamination with atmospheric plasma can increase the surface energy and therefore achieve permanent adhesive forces [15,16].

Numerous tests have been carried out on small-scale specimens and sample components in order to increase the popularity of adhesives for glass-glass and glass-metal connections. Besides looking for suitable geometries and adhesives [17], the selected connections are subjected to aging scenarios and different loads. For example, the buckling behavior of panes of glass glued to a substruc­ture is investigated [18]. One promising area of application for the future is to be found in so-called hybrid beams [19-21]. In such beams, the brittleness of the glass is compensated for by combining the glass with a ductile material.

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