Additional Factors

In a survey article by Weinstein (1998), nosocomial infections in the US were estimated to have cost $4.5 billion in the year 1995. This article indicates a growing concern based on the increase of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, such as (MRSA) and (VRE). The shift from inpatient to outpatient care leaves the more vulnerable patients within the hospitals, especially the immunocompromised patients. This increases the opportunities and likelihood of nosocomial infections. These factors, when combined with the renovation of aging hospitals, which increases the risk of airborne fungal and other infections (PHTS 2000), suggest that a better approach is needed to cleaning and maintaining healthcare facilities in the future.