Column Element

The column element formulation is identical to that of a beam, as columns are treated as 2D elements that participate separately to intersecting 2D frames. Plasticity zones are developed at the end regions of columns and axial deformations are taken into account.

1.1 Shear Wall Element

Shear wall elements are modelled combining an axial linear-elastic spring together with a nonlinear shear and a nonlinear flexural spring in series. In this case not only a moment-curvature skeleton curve is required, but a shear force-shear deformation curve as well, which are either user defined or computed through a fiber model.