Gage Distance from Angle Heel to Centerline of Bolt Hole

Figure 12 shows the distributions of bolt force, M — 9r curves, and initial connection stiffness in cases varying gage distance from top angle’s vertical leg (g’t) as g’t = 51 mm, 64 mm, and 114 mm, in which those are for models of FE1, A1, and FE3, respectively. From this figure, it is confirmed that decreasing the gage distance, (1) prying force is more increased; (2) a plastification of connection is early progressed and strain hardening effects can be expected in the large rotation area; and (3) initial connection stiffness is almost linearly increased.