Mechanical Properties of Bolt

Figure 15 shows the distributions of bolt force and M — 9r curves, in cases changing grade of bolts as A325 and A490, in which those are for models of A2 and FE8, respectively. From this figure, it is observed that the bolt force is increased near ultimate state by taking higher grade bolts, connection moment capacity can be upgraded a little in the elasto-plastic region; and connection rotation also can be increased.

Conclusions

In this study, in order to investigate the interaction between column flange and top angle’s vertical leg and these effects including bolt action on M — 9r characteristics of top – and seat-angle connections, elasto-plastic finite element (FE) analysis was performed. Here, numerical analysis results together with the prediction by Kishi-Chen power model are compared with experimental ones to examine an applicability of the proposed analysis method and power model. In addition, to investigate the influence of connection parameters on prying force and moment-rotation behavior of top – and seat – angle connection, a parametric study was conducted by varying dimensions of connection models and magnitude of pretension force surcharged to the bolts. The following conclusions are obtained from this study:

(1) Proposed numerical analysis method can be applicable to estimate elasto-plastic nonlinear behavior of angle type connection;

(2) Power model is able to predict M — 9r curves of the connection satisfactorily and can be applicable for nonlinear analysis of steel frames with semi-rigid connections;

(3) Pretension force of bolts has no effect on prying action at the initial and ultimate level of loading, but gives some effects a little at the intermediate loading level;

(4) A prying action can be increased with decreasing of thickness of flange angle or increasing gage distance from the angle heel to the centerline of bolt hole;

(5) Depth of beam section has no effect on prying action;

(6) Use of stiffer bolts or weaker angles in connection may increase the prying action; and

(7) Initial connection stiffness and ultimate moment capacity of the connections can be increased due to increasing of angle thickness, beam depth and bolt diameter, and decreasing of gage distance.

References

ABAQUS, 1998, Standard User’s Manual, Version 5.8, Hibbitt Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.

American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), 1994, Manual of Steel Construction, Load and Resistance Factored Design (LRFD), Vols I & II(2).

Azizinamini, A., Bradburn, J. H. and Radziminski, J. B., 1985, Static and Cyclic Behavior of Semi-Rigid Steel Beam-Column Connections, Structural Research Studies, Department of Civil Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

Chasten, C. P., Fleischman, R. B., Driscoll, G. C. and Lu, L. W., 1989, Top-and-seat-angle connection and end-plate connec­tions: Behavior and strength under monotonic and cyclic loading, Proceedings of National Engineering Conference, American Institute of Steel Construction, Chicago, Vol. 3, pp. 6-1-6-32.

Fleischman, R. B., 1988, Experimental and theoretical analysis of component behavior in top-and-seat-angle connections, ATLSS Project A3.1, Master’s Thesis, Lehigh University, Pittsburgh, PA.

Harper, W. L., 1990, Dynamic Response of Steel Frames with Semi-Rigid Connections, Structural Research Studies, Department of Civil Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

Kishi, N. and Chen, W. F., 1990, Moment-rotation relations of semi-rigid connections with angles, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 116(7), 1813-1834.