Reinforcing Steel

The reinforcing bars are explicitly modelled (Figure 5). The diameters of the bars are included as per the specification.

= 7800 kg/m3 = 200,000 MPa = 0.3

= 400 MPa

= 0.0 (elastic-perfectly plastic).

1.2 304L Stainless Steel Liner (5 mm) and Inspection Platforms

For this material, a bi-linear elastic-plastic isotropic hardening model is applied. This material model is applicable to finite deformation and calculated on a co-rotational material frame in the beam and shell elements. This provides for objectivity in the updated configuration. Shell thinning is included and failure of the liner plate structure is defined when the maximum plastic strain is exceeded at all the fibres through the thickness of the shell. Three integration points through the thickness are used to sample the non-linear response and obtain the thinning. For HSS beam members, sixteen integration points around the cross section of the member is used to capture the non-linear response of the beam members. Weight per unit volume = 7800 kg/m3

Modulus of Elasticity Poisson’s ratio Initial yield strength Hardening Modulus