Statistical analysis

The standard method of analyzing quantitative questionnaire data is by submitting them to various statistical procedures. These procedures are categorized under two broad categories: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

• Descriptive Statistics were used to summarize the data collected and present them in smaller space and easier to read and interpret format. The descriptive statistic procedures were performed on the different multi-item scales and each single item of the research questionnaire: Mean, Range, Mode, Median, Standard Deviation, and Skewness. The different risks and response methods were ranked according to their means in a descending order. This helped in achieving the first two objectives of this study since by this ranking process, the most critical risks facing contractors and the most effective response methods employed to mitigate the effect of risks were identified.

• Inferential statistics were used to measure the statistical significance of the results obtained from the descriptive statistics and if they were good enough to indicate a more generalized phenomenon. In other words, inferential statistics were used to generalize the results obtained from the statistical analysis performed on the sample data over the whole population. The inferential statistics procedure used in this research is the analysis of variance (ANOVA), which was performed to specify the variance of the results obtained between different company characteristics (i. e. company nationality and company ownership type). The significance tests are conducted at a 5% level of significance using an F distribution.