Since the main object of the study was to see what effect the treatment of an entire environment would have on the total bioburden, it was imperative to treat all surfaces including the floors, ceilings, walls, doors, all touch hardware, air filters and all fixtures. The fixtures included sinks, counter tops, examination tables, medical instruments, desks, telephone handsets, computers, filing cabinets, chairs, tables and touch hardware etc. Where possible, existing commercial antimicrobial products were used. For some applications (such as floor wax, protective carpet underlay fabric and paint), special products were developed. No treatment was made to any item within the control wing.