Conclusion and Future Uses of Alumina
The properties of alumina listed in Sects. 4-10 show the unusual performance of pure alumina, leading to the variety of applications given in Table 1. Practical aluminas with impurities and defects have somewhat degraded properties, but often are superior to many other materials, and have a variety of specialized applications such as refractories, electronic components, and catalyst substrates. In  there are articles discussing the future of alumina. There will continue to be incremental improvements in processing methods and properties, leading to expansion of present applications. What really new areas of application of alumina are likely? These predictions are speculative, but the most promising new applications of alumina will probably be in electronic circuits, optical components, and biomaterials. Alumina fibers for composites and optics are attractive if they can be made pure, defect-free, and cheap. Because of its excellent properties other unsuspected applications of alumina will undoubtedly be developed.