The construction of a concrete building requires formwork to support the slabs (horizontal formwork) as well as columns and walls (vertical formwork). The terms concrete formwork and concrete form carry the same meaning and are used interchangeably in this book. Formwork is defined as a temporary structure whose purpose is to provide support and containment for fresh concrete until it can support itself. It molds the concrete to the desired shape and size, and controls its position and alignment. Concrete forms are engineered structures that are required to support loads such as fresh concrete, construction materials, equipment, workers, var-
ious impacts, and sometimes wind. The forms must support all the applied loads without collapse or excessive deflection.