CONVENTIONAL WALL/COLUMNS FORMING SYSTEMS
This all-wood forming system consists of sheathing made of plywood or lumber that retains concrete until it hardens or reaches adequate strength. This system is also known as job-built wood system. The sheathing is supported by vertical wood studs. The studs are supported by horizontal wales which also align the forms. Single or double horizontal wales are used to support the studs (Figure 6.1). However, double wales are preferred to avoid drilling through single wales, which reduces its load-carrying capacity. Ties are drilled through wales (single wale) or inserted between them (double wale) to resist the lateral pressure of plastic (wet) concrete. An inclined bracing system is used to resist construction and wind loading that formwork is subject to.