Подпись:This all-wood forming system consists of sheathing made of ply­wood or lumber that retains concrete until it hardens or reaches adequate strength. This system is also known as job-built wood system. The sheathing is supported by vertical wood studs. The studs are supported by horizontal wales which also align the forms. Single or double horizontal wales are used to support the studs (Figure 6.1). However, double wales are preferred to avoid drilling through single wales, which reduces its load-carrying ca­pacity. Ties are drilled through wales (single wale) or inserted be­tween them (double wale) to resist the lateral pressure of plastic (wet) concrete. An inclined bracing system is used to resist con­struction and wind loading that formwork is subject to.