Design Loads

Formwork should be designed to adequately sustain all the applied loads without failure or excessive deflection. ACI Committee 347­94 is considered the industry guide for estimating minimum and maximum loads applied on formwork. The following is a summary of the different load types and values.

Vertical Loads

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Vertical load consists of dead load and live load. The weight of the formwork plus the weight of the freshly placed concrete is dead load. The live load includes the weight of workers, equipment, ma­terial, storage, impact, etc.

3. Live load. The American Concrete Institute (ACI = 347) specifies that different elements used to support vertical loads should be designed for a minimum live load of 50 psf on the horizontal projection. When motorized cars are present, the minimum live load should be 75 psf.

The minimum design load for combined dead and live load should be 100 psf, or 125 psf if motorized cars are present.

Horizontal Load

Braces and shores should be designed to resist all foreseeable hor­izontal loads such as seismic, wind, inclined support, starting and stopping of equipment, and other such loads.