A wall form is usually made up of sheathing, studs, wales, ties, and bracing as shown in Figure 6.1. The fresh concrete places a lateral pressure on the sheathing, which is supported by studs. Studs be­have structurally as a continuous beam with many spans supported on wales. Wales, in turn, are assumed to act as a continuous beam that rests on ties. Ties finally transmit concrete lateral pressure to the ground.