The target is to control the design stage to provide high quality with a better price.
The design input is all technical information necessary for the design process. To be clear, the basis of this information comes from the owner through the statement of requirement (SOR) document, so the engineering firm should review this document clearly, and if there is any confusion or misunderstanding it should be finished and clarified in the document and through meetings.
Instructions for controlling the design are often provided in the contract. The client puts in some instructions to control the whole process or request some specific action, such as a representative from the audit during the design phase.
The designer must take into account the available materials in the local market of the project country and its location, and they must match with the capabilities of the owner. The designers must have a contact with and full knowledge of the best equipment, machinery, and available materials.
The design must be in conformity with the project specifications, and the permissible deviation and tolerance should be in accordance with the specifications and requirements of the owner.
Health, safety, and the environment are critical subjects now days, so every design should match with health, safety, and environmental regulations.
The computer is one of the basic tools now in the design process as well as in the recording and storage of information, with the possibility of changing the design easily. It is easy now to modify the drawings by using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software in order to obtain more precise information with the access to information through various forms of tables and diagrams.
The design output must be compatible with all design requirements, and design should be reviewed through the internal audit. The design must be compared to an old design that has been approved for similar projects. Any engineering firm should have a procedure such as a checklist to review the design.
The audits of design review are intended to be on a regular basis. In the case of important stages in the design, the audit must have complete documentation and could take the form of analytical forms such as the analysis of collapse, with an assessment of the risk of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). In the case of oil and gas projects, operating risks such as Hazard Operation (HAZOP) are being studied. The review will be conducted by engineers with higher experience.