Operational Phase of the Project

The owner is responsible for the operation phase, as in this phase the owner will have full authority and responsibility to operate the project after the commissioning and start-up phase.

During operation there is usually a requirement to modify the facilities due to operation needs.

This is traditional in the oil and gas industry in the case of an increase in production or a need to modify the mode of operation.

In some regular cases workshops are extended in normal industry. Most international companies that follow ISO have a management of change system and procedure.

In this procedure the required modification is identified and approval is granted from all the engineering disciplines. In new projects, it is preferred to go to the original engineering office that performed the design to do the engineering for this modification.

An example of poor "management of change" (MOC) in an inter­national hotel is the conversion of one room from normal use to be a planet land for entertainment. They put clay on the floor without performing any management of change process, and due to this heavy load, the floor collapsed and damaged 4 cars in the garage underneath the room.

From previous experience, projects in every step of engineering and construction concentrate on these goals, and usually the input from the operation is very little.

In most oil and gas projects, the owner creates a separate orga­nization for this project (described in Chapter 5). In most cases, the project is under the responsibility of different departments. However, the operation is the end user but usually a limited num­ber of operation engineers share in the project for many reasons, as the operation cannot release. On the other hand, the operation members who are usually one or two engineers just define what they need. In this circumstance there is usually an expectation for not full satisfaction from the operations department.