Project Life Cycle

The project definition is a set of activities that has a start time, time period, and end time. These activities vary from project to project depending on the nature of the project. For example, a cultural or social project or civil project — such as the construction of a resi­dential building, hospital, road and bridges or industrial projects — is different in its characteristics. The examination that follows limits its scope to on industrial projects.

Civil projects, in general, vary from project to project depending on the size and value of the project. It can be anything from con­structing a guard room to constructing a nuclear plant. Therefore, the quality varies depending on the size of the project, especially in developing countries.

In a small project, it might be sufficient to apply a quality control only where small contracting companies or engineering offices do not wish to have a global competition. For, increasing the quality will increase the project total cost that they will execute, as if these companies have quality assurance tracking systems that will also increase the cost of the project as a whole. Therefore, they often apply the quality control only within the structure safety of the building.

In the case of major projects, there are many execution compa­nies or engineering offices working. Therefore, we must also take into account that firms implementing quality assurance procedures are necessary and vital, as well as the quality control carried out in all phases of the project based on the project specifications.

Stages of construction projects start with a feasibility study, fol­lowed by preliminary studies of the project, following detailed studies with detailed drawings. Then, the operation crew will receive the project to run.

In all these stages, there are many types of quality control that are required to obtain a successful project that can return benefits and appropriate return money to the owner and all parties par­ticipants in that project. Figure (2.1) shows the life cycle of any project.

From this figure, it is clear that a feasibility study accounts for only 5% of the progress of the project, while completion of the engi­neering designs comprise only 25% of the project’s progress. By far, the biggest project stage in terms of time and costs is the execution phase.

Project Life Cycle

Figure 2.1 Project life cycle.

As shown in Figure (2.1), after the feasibility study senior man­agement should have a definite answer for the following question: Will the project continue or will it be terminated? Here is the gate if there is a positive situation, then cross the gate to the next stage to the preliminary studies, which will provide a more accurate assessment of the project. After that, another decision will need to be made on whether the project will move forward to the detailed engineering and construction phase.

At each phase of the project, there is a role for the owner, the contractor, and the consulting engineer. Each system has its own method of project management, and every stage of these meth­ods has its own characteristics and circumstances, which follow a

Project Life Cycle

Figure 2.2 Change of crew size during project life time.

 

І-Feasibility (appraise

 

11-Select (FEED) phase

 

-Define (Detail) phase

 

Iv-Execution phase

 

v-Commissioning & startup

 

Time

 

Figure 2.3 Industrial project main phases.

 

Project Life Cycle

change in the area of employment Scope Of Work (SOW) that clari­fies each stage for each of the three parties. A characteristic of the project life cycle is that is changes from time to time. In each period there is a different number of personnel and employment in the project. For example, at the beginning of the project the number may be very small but then increases when the number of activities being carried out increases and then gradually decreases until the end of the project. Figure (2.2) shows the change in the number of personnel in the project.

From the above figure, it is noted that the project manager should have the necessary skills to deal with the changes that occur during the life cycle of the project.