Quality Considerations of Detailed Study
The project lifecycle moves forward from the engineering study to the stage of completed construction drawings and specifications for the project as a whole.
This phase entails many working hours, extensive contacts, good coordination, and excellent organization, with sufficient freedom of communication between individuals that facilitates management review while maintaining strong and continuous coordination. The administrative organization and the nature of the documents and forms from this stage, as well as the movement of documents within the enterprise have been discussed earlier in detail in Chapter 6. As with each of the other stages so far, this stage has its own quality issues to be addressed.
Engineers have a tendency to believe in utopias where our lives are dependent on the accuracy of the accounts and reviews, but teamwork is not always so precise. Often work reaches someone late, or action must be taken to correct it, or there may be some change in procedures within the company or department without the project managers knowledge. All of this leads to time losses, creating an incentive to reform the overall working atmosphere — which itself a kind of starting-point for grasping the need for a system of quality assurance. While the system of quality assurance provides stable functioning of all departments, changes of personnel can happen which can create a short-term challenge to maintaining the QA system. This problem often arises at the stage of studies where the QA system is needed to facilitate intensive cooperation.
When there is a strong relationship between the managers of the departments of civil and mechanical during a project, information will tend to be shared in a timely manner, with the work carrying on smoothly, amid ongoing periodic meetings and productive correspondence.
The importance of the QA system within this stage derives from its embodiment of the processes of organizational work. Everyone should know the goal of the foundation and the goal of the project by the institution. The responsibility of each individual and the concept of quality is clear at all times and supported by documentation.
Documents are considered the operational arm of the quality application process. Drawings are set to be received at a specific time for the owner to review, discussion takes place of any amendments, and remarks are incorporated identifying changes.
In the event that development of a particular activity is canceled, there needs to be a quality system procedure in place to ensure that confusion with the other copies of drawings avoided, thus eliminating a source of human error. The modification revision number continues to be updated, and this process carries on until final approval of the drawing, indicating by sealed stamp that it has been "Approved for Construction." "Approved For Construction" drawings obtained at the completion of the study phase and the start of the execution phase should have specifications and drawings fully ready to start the construction phase. In some projects, this may reach hundreds of drawings, incorporating any additional specifications, operational manuals, and provisions for maintenance and repair in the event of failures or trouble-shooting.
Generally the following five principles of design should be covered in each quality assurance system:
1. Planning, design and development – Determine who does what in the design.
2. Entrance design – The project manager must know what the client wants in the design.
3. Troubleshooting design – Provide clarity for the final form of the design.
4. Verification of the design – Review with the client to make sure that the design is consistent with the needs of the client.
5. Change Design – Ensure that any change in design will be adopted by responsible persons.