Category Materials for Construction and Civil Engineering

Rganic Coatings

Alda Simoes

Abstract

Organic coatings are the most widely used finishing for all kinds of structures. In this chapter, a brief presentation of organic coatings and of its properties is made, dealing namely with the components and their role in the coating performance, the properties of the dry coating, the degradation mechanisms and finally the specific properties for coatings designed for various substrates. The chapter is meant to provide non-experts with a general look over the world of organic coatings.

Keywords

Organic coatings • Polymeric materials • Weathering • Pigments • Binder • Curing • Adhesion • Dispersion • Pigment volume concentration • Chalking • Volatile components (of an organic coating) • ZETA potential • Acid pollutants • Gloss • Cracking

17.1 Introduction

Most objects and surfaces that surround us are covered by a finishing layer, commonly with a composition different from the base material and which in some way improves the aptitude of the object or surface to its final use. Coatings can be metallic (like galvanized steel, in which steel is coated with zinc), inorganic non-metallic (like anodized aluminium, in which the base metal undergoes chemi­cal conversion at the surface, producing a protective layer of aluminium oxide) or organic. This last group, which includes paints and varnishes, is used in practically

A. Simoes (H)

Department of Chemical Engineering—DEQ and Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal e-mail: alda. simoes@tecnico. ulisboa. pt

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

M. C. Gonsalves, F. Margarido (eds.), Materials for Construction and Civil

Engineering, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-08236-3_17
all types of applications, from the automotive industry, to aeronautics, to furniture

or architecture.

Whatever the application, organic coatings always perform several functions:

• Protective function: the coating is a barrier that separates the surface from the outer environment, increasing its resistance to air, water, solvents (organic liquids) and chemically aggressive liquids (acid or alkaline).

• Decorative function: it is reached by means of colour, texture and brightness.

• Hygienic function: on walls and pavements, and also in other applications, such as furniture, the organic coating, by decreasing the roughness of the surface and also by changing its composition, can decrease its tendency to accumulate bacteria, dirt and other impurities, thus easing the cleaning processes.

• Impermeabilization: this is a particular case of the protective function. Organic coatings constitute a barrier to the outer environment, thus isolating the material from the outer humidity; further, they tend to fill the recessed areas or cracks on the surface, further protecting from the effects of water.

Specifications

• ACI 503.2 Standard specification for bonding plastic concrete to hardened concrete with a multi-component epoxy adhesive.

• ACI 503.3 Specification for producing a skid-resistant surface on concrete by the use of epoxy and aggregate.

• ACI 503.4 Standard specification for repairing concrete with epoxy mortars.

• ACI 503.5R Guide for the selection of polymer adhesives with concrete.

• ACI 503.7 Specification for Crack Repair by Epoxy Injection.

• ACI 546.2R Guide to underwater repair of concrete.

• ACI 546.3R Guide for the selection of materials for the repair of concrete.

• ACI 546R Concrete repair guide.

• ACI 548.11R Guide for application of epoxy and latex adhesives for bonding freshly mixed and hardened concretes.

• ACI 548.12 Specification for bonding hardened concrete and steel to hardened concrete with an epoxy adhesive.

• ACI 548.F Specification for Bonding Fresh Concrete to Hardened Concrete with a Multi-Component Epoxy Adhesive.

• ACI 548.G Specification for Repairing Concrete with Epoxy Mortars.

• ACI 548.HR Guide for the application of epoxy and latex adhesives for bonding fresh to hardened concrete.

Acknowledgments The author wishes to acknowledge the courtesy of Rotafix Ltd. (Rotafix

House, Hennoyadd Road, Abercrave, Swansea, SA9 1UR, United Kingdom) (http://rotafix. co.

uk/) for supplying the images of Figure 16.3.

Applications

16.8.6.1 Bibliographical References

• Concrete Repair Manual, 4th ed., American Concrete Institute (ACI)—Interna­tional Concrete Repair Institute (ICRI), 2013.

• Appleton, J. A. S., Reabilitaqao de Edificios Antigos—Patologias e tecnologias de intervenqao, 1s ed., Edicoes Orion: Amadora, 2003.

• Appleton, J. G., Reabilitaqao de Edificios «Gaioleiros»—Um Quarteirao em Lisboa, 1s ed., Edicoes Orion: Amadora, 2005.

• Bijen, J., Durability of Engineering Structures: Design, Repair and Mainte­nance, 1st ed., Woodhead Publishing Ltd and CRC Press LLC: Abington and Boca Raton, 2003.

• Cdias e Silva, V., Reabilitaqao Estrutural de Edificios Antigos. Alvenaria – Madeira. Tdcnicas pouco Intrusivas, 2nd ed., Argumentum: Lisboa, 2007.

• Emmons, P. H., Concrete Repair and Maintenance Illustrated: Problem Analy­sis, Repair Strategy, Techniques. R. S. Means Company: Kingston, MA, 1994.

• Forde, M. C. (ed.), ICE Manual of Construction Materials. «Fundamentals and Theory; Concrete; Asphalts in Road Construction; Masonry», vol. 1. Thomas Telford: London, 2009.

• Forde, M. C. (Ed.), ICE Manual of Construction Materials. «Metals and Alloys; Polymers; Polymer Fibre Composites in Civil Engineering; Timber; Glass; non-Conventional Materials», vol. 2. Thomas Telford: London, 2009.

• Hurley, S. A., «Use of epoxy, polyester and similar reactive polymers. Volume 1—materials and their practical applications», Construction Industry Research and Information Association, CIRIA Project Report 79: London, 2000.

• Irfan, M. H., «Chemistry and Technology of Thermosetting Polymers in Con­struction Applications». Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998.

• Machado, J. S., Cruz, H., Custhdio, J., Palma, P. and Dias, A., Avaliacqdo, Conservaqao e Reforcqo de Estruturas de Madeira (Evaluation, conservation and reinforcement of timber structures), Machado, J. S. (ed.). Verlag Dashofer: Lisboa, 2009.

• Mays, G. and Hutchinson, A. R., Adhesives in Civil Engineering, 1st ed., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1992.

• Perkins, P. H., Repair, Protection and Waterproofing of Concrete Structures, 3rd ed., E & FN Spon: London, 1997.

• Radomski, W., «Bridge Rehabilitation». Imperial College Press: London, 2002.

• Shi, C. and Mo, Y. L. (Eds.), «High-Performance Construction Materials: Science and Applications», in Engineering Materials for Technological Needs, vol. 1. World Scientific Publishing Company: Singapore, 2008.

• Bai, J. (Ed.), Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications, Woodhead Publishing: Cambridge, 2013.

Standards

• ASTM E1512 Standard test methods for testing bond performance of bonded anchors.

• EN 302 Adhesives for load-bearing timber structures. Test methods.

– Part 1: Determination of bond strength in longitudinal tensile shear strength.

– Part 2: Determination of resistance to delamination.

• EN 408 Timber structures. Structural timber and bonding laminated timber. Determination of some physical and mechanical properties.

• EN 1193 Timber structures. Structural timber and bonding laminated timber. Determination of shear strength and mechanical properties perpendicular to the grain.

• EN 1195 Timber structures. Test methods. Performance of structural floor decking.

• EN 1544 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. Test methods. Determination of creep under sustained tensile load for synthetic resin products (PC) for the anchoring of reinforcing bars.

• EN 1799 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. Test methods. Tests to measure the suitability of structural bonding agents for application to concrete surface.

• EN 1881 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. Test methods. Testing of anchoring products by the pull-out method.

• EN ISO 9664 Adhesives. Test methods for fatigue properties of structural adhesives in tensile shear (ISO 9664).

• EN 12188 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. Test methods. Determination of adhesion steel-to-steel for character­ization of structural bonding agents

• EN 12614 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. Test methods. Determination of glass transition temperatures of polymers.

• EN 12617 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. Test methods.

– Part 1: Determination of linear shrinkage for polymers and surface protection systems (SPS).

– Part 2: Shrinkage of crack injection products based on polymer binder: volumetric shrinkage.

– Part 3: Determination of early age linear shrinkage for structural bonding agents.

– Part 4: Determination of shrinkage and expansion.

• EN 12618 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. Test methods.

– Part 1: Adhesion and elongation capacity of injection products with limited ductility.

– Part 2: Determination of the adhesion of injection products, with or without thermal cycling. Adhesion by tensile bond strength.

– Part 3: Determination of the adhesion of injection products, with or without thermal cycling. Slant shear method.

• EN 13584 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. Test methods. Determination of creep in compression for repair products.

• EN 13733 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. Test methods. Determination of the durability of structural bonding agents.

• EN 13894 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. Test methods.

– Part 1: Determination of fatigue under dynamic loading. During curing.

– Part 2: Determination of fatigue under dynamic loading. After hardening.

• EN 14258 Structural adhesives. Mechanical behaviour of bonded joints subjected to short and long terms exposure at specified conditions of temperature.

• EN 14444 Structural adhesives. Qualitative assessment of durability of bonded assemblies. Wedge rupture test.

• EN ISO 11343 Adhesives. Determination of dynamic resistance to cleavage of high-strength adhesive bonds under impact conditions. Wedge impact method.

• EN 14869 Structural adhesives. Determination of shear behaviour of structural bonds.

– Part 1: Torsion test method using butt-bonded hollow cylinders.

– Part 2: Thick adherends shear test.

• EN 15190 Structural adhesives. Test methods for assessing long term durability of bonded metallic structures.

• EN 15416 Adhesives for load bearing timber structures other than phenolic and aminoplastic. Test methods.

– Part 2: Static load test of multiple bondline specimens in compression shear.

– Part 3: Creep deformation test at cyclic climate conditions with specimens loaded in bending shear.

• ISO 19993 Timber structures. Bonding laminated timber. Face and edge joint cleavage test.

• ISO 16572 Timber structures. Wood-based panels. Test methods for structural properties.

Performance and Durability

16.8.5.1 Bibliographical References

• Adams, R. D., Comyn, J. and Wake, W. C., Structural Adhesive Joints in Engineering, 2nd ed., Springer: London, 1997.

• Comyn, J., Adhesion Science, 1st ed., Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, 1997.

• Custodio, J., Broughton, J. and Cruz, H., «A review of factors influencing the durability of structural bonded timber joints». International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, vol. 29, (2), pp. 173-185, 2009.

• Ebnesajjad, S. (Ed.), Adhesives Technology Handbook, 2nd ed., William Andrew Publishing: New York, 2008.

• Kinloch, A. J. (Ed.), Durability of Structural Adhesives, 1st ed., Applied Science Publishers Ltd.: Barking, UK, 1983.

• Kinloch, A. J., Adhesion and Adhesives: Science and Technology, 1st ed., Chapman & Hall: London, 1987.

• Mays, G. and Hutchinson, A. R., Adhesives in Civil Engineering, 1st ed., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1992.

• Petrie, E. M., Handbook of Adhesives & Sealants, 1st ed., McGraw-Hill, 1999.

• Pizzi, A. and Mittal, K. L. (eds.), Handbook of Adhesive Technology, 2nd ed., Marcel Dekker: New York, 2003.

Standards

• EN 1504 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation of conformity.

– Part 1: Definitions.

– Part 2: Surface protection systems for concrete.

– Part 3: Structural and non-structural repair.

– Part 4: Structural bonding.

– Part 5: Concrete injection.

– Part 6: Anchoring of reinforcing steel bar.

– Part 7: Reinforcement corrosion protection.

– Part 8: Quality control and evaluation of conformity.

– Part 9: General principles for the use of products and systems.

– Part 10: Site application of products and systems and quality control of the works.

Process Control

16.8.4.1 Bibliographical References

• «Design Manual for Roads and Bridges. Volume 3: Highway Structures: Inspec­tion & Maintenance. Section 16.3: Repair and Strengthening. Part 1: BA 30/94 Strengthening of Concrete Highway Structures Using Externally Bonded Plates». Highways Agency, UK: London, 1994.

• «Guide to the Structural Use of Adhesives», The Institution of Structural Engineers (IStructE). SETO: London, 1999.

• «Low Intrusion Conservation Systems for Timber Structures—LICONS (http:// www. licons. org/)», European Commission Research Directorates General (CRAFT) Cooperative Research FP5, Project reference EVK4-CT-2002- 30008, 2005.

• Dunky, M., Kallender, B., Properzi, M., Richter, K. and Leemput, M. V. (eds.), Core document of the COST Action E34—Bonding of Timber, in Lignovisionen, Special ed., University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences: Vienna, 2008.

• Ebnesajjad, S. (Ed.), Adhesives Technology Handbook, 2nd ed., William Andrew Publishing: New York, 2008.

• Mays, G. and Hutchinson, A. R., Adhesives in Civil Engineering, 1st ed., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1992.

• Repair of Concrete Structures to EN 1504. A guide for renovation of concrete structures—repair materials and systems according to the EN 1504 series, 1st ed., Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford, 2004.

• «Repair of concrete structures with reference to BS EN 1504 (Technical Report 69)». The Concrete Society: Crowthorne, Berkshire, UK, 2009.

Standards

• ASTM C1583/C1583M Standard test method for tensile strength of concrete surfaces and the bond strength or tensile strength of concrete repair and overlay materials by direct tension (pull-off method).

• ASTM D2093 Standard practice for preparation of surfaces of plastics prior to adhesive bonding.

• ASTM D2651 Standard guide for preparation of metal surfaces for adhesive bonding.

• ASTM D5295 Standard guide for preparation of concrete surfaces for adhered (bonded) membrane waterproofing systems.

• EN 13887 Structural adhesives. Guidelines for surface preparation of metals and plastics prior to adhesive bonding.

• EN ISO 8504-1 Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products. Surface preparation methods. General principles.

• EN ISO 8504-2 Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products. Surface preparation methods. Abrasive blast cleaning.

• EN ISO 8504-3 Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products. Surface preparation methods. Hand – and power-tool cleaning.

• ISO 17212 Structural adhesives. Guidelines for the surface preparation of metals and plastics prior to adhesive bonding.

• ISO 27831-1 Metallic and other inorganic coatings. Cleaning and preparation of metal surfaces. Ferrous metals and alloys.

• ISO 27831-2 Metallic and other inorganic coatings. Cleaning and preparation of metal surfaces. Non-ferrous metals and alloys.

Surface Preparation

16.8.3.1 Bibliographical References

• Adams, R. D., Comyn, J. and Wake, W. C., Structural Adhesive Joints in Engineering, 2nd ed., Springer: London, 1997.

• Broughton, J. G. and CustcSdio, J., «Understanding timber structural connection systems», in ICE Manual of Construction Materials, vol. 2, Forde, M. C. (Ed.), Thomas Telford Ltd: London, 2009.

• Ebnesajjad, S. (Ed.), Adhesives Technology Handbook, 2nd ed., William Andrew Publishing: New York, 2008.

• Machado, J. S., Cruz, H., CustcSdio, J., Palma, P. and Dias, A., Avaliacgdo, Conservagao e Reforgo de Estruturas de Madeira, Machado, J. S. (ed.). Verlag Dashofer: Lisboa, 2009.

• Mays, G. and Hutchinson, A. R., Adhesives in Civil Engineering, 1st ed., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1992.

• Petrie, E. M., Handbook of Adhesives & Sealants, 1st ed., McGraw-Hill, 1999.

• Pocius, A. V., Adhesion and Adhesives Technology: An Introduction, 2nd ed., Hanser Gardner Publications: Cincinnati, 2002.

Metal Structures

• «Guide to the Structural Use of Adhesives», The Institution of Structural Engineers (IStructE). SETO: London, 1999.

• Mays, G. and Hutchinson, A. R., Adhesives in Civil Engineering, 1st ed., Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1992.

16.8.2.2 General Applications

• Clarke, J. L. (Ed.), Structural Design of Polymer Composites: EUROCOMP Design Code and Handbook, 1st ed., E & FN Spon: London, 1996.