Project Planning

The initial and basic principle of project management is how to read the time schedule, which is a real representation of the nature of the project, with the expectation of what could occur as a result of implementation. The next important step is to determine the purpose of the project and then answer the following question, "Is the driving force time or costs?" Then, the project manager must draw up a timetable with the project represented as a whole range of self-contained but interrelated activities.

For more than 20 years, schedules have been prepared manually. Since the developments in the field of computers, programs are now used to deliver the time schedule. In general, there is more than one method to draw up a time schedule for the project and this happens according to the nature of the project and the required presentation that will be provided to senior management.

We must recognize that the preparation of the schedule is the cornerstone of the management of projects and will follow the work schedule and the allocation of human resources and equipment, as well as the distribution of costs along the project period with the identification of ways to control costs.

In the beginning of 1900 and during World War I, Henry L. Gantt used the first method for preparing a project schedule. This is considered the first scientific method for the preparation of schedules. This simple method of representing activities with rectangles is used in project planning and work schedules at the time of production. The Gantt chart is set up by putting the plan on the magnetic blackboard and using rectangles made of iron and with length as a time unit. This was developed to be an (S) curve and is con­sidered the first method to follow up the project with different activities by distributing the resources on the activity and monitoring the performance.

Until the mid 1950s, there had been no mention of development in project planning. In 1957, there were two different teams working on project plan­ning using networks. The first team was prepared by using the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT); this method depends on prob­ability theory. The second team used a network and depended on the Critical Path Method (CPM). The methods of those networks have the same method­ology; the difference is in the objectives. The development is done through operations research.

The first use of the PERT method was when the U. S. Navy was faced with a challenge in the POLARIS system, as they wanted to make rocket launchers in record time in 1958. The basics of the PERT method involved overcoming the lack of definition of activity duration time and used statistical methods to calculate it. This was done by defining the maximum, minimum, and most likely time for each activity, and obtaining the likely time of completion of the project, important parts of the project, and the minimum and maximum probable times to complete the project.

CPM was introduced in 1957 by two companies, Du Pont and Remington Rand Univac. The objective of the working group was to reduce the time for maintenance, overhaul of the rotating machines, and construction work.

It is noted that the calculation of the time required for different activi­ties can easily be applied to projects other than POLARIS activities, as we need to identify one expected period only for each activity and the longer timetable for the course of the series of activities has been defined as the critical path.

CPM is the most common way of networking activities in project planning. It is used along with other methods by computer software. The process of planning is simply planning what will be done on the project in accordance with the order and manner of the execution of the project. Often there will be some changes and they should be followed up and the time schedule adjusted should be in accordance with the changes in the project as well.

To do the work with good planning, you must answer these questions clearly:

What are the activities that you want to do?

When will these activities be executed?

Who will execute the activities?

What are the equipment and tools required?

What are the activities that cannot be executed?

The answer to the previous questions is the key to arranging the work in an appropriate way.

So the project will be understandable, your goal is to transform informa­tion in a way that it can be presented to all parties in the project and be clearly understood by all. Your planning team target is to implement the project in a timely manner and in accordance with the specific cost require­ments and, at the same time, achieve the required level of quality. Project planning requires the following goals:

• Reduce the risks of the project to the lowest level possible.

• Achieve the performance specifications for the project by establish­ing an organization for the implementation of business.

• Develop procedures to control the project.

• Achieve the best results in the shortest possible time.

The planner cannot plan for every minute of the project in detail because of the nonavailability of all information. As the work goes on, new details will require an increase in the effort and time to adjust the timetable in accor­dance with the new information and details.

Updated: 21 августа, 2015 — 5:11 дп